Almost Everything You Know About Old Age Is Baloney

A new book by German neurobiologist Martin Korte dispels the most common stereotypes about aging. He calls for a "radical reassessment of old age."

Intergenerational dialogue (Fokko Muller)
Intergenerational dialogue (Fokko Muller)
Michael Holmes

BERLIN - People around the world are getting older and older -- persistently and unstoppably. Life expectancy, median age and the number of older people are increasing in virtually every country.

Those wishing to help shape this demographic trend in a positive, constructive way must understand the specificities of age. But -- like men and women -- the old and the young seem to be from different planets. Well-meant attempts at intergenerational dialogue are often just separate monologues.

In his book Jung im Kopf: Erstaunliche Einsichten der Gehirnforschung in das Aelterwerden (Mentally Young: Brain Research Yields Astonishing Insights into Getting Older), neurobiologist Martin Korte delves into the most common stereotypes about aging, all of which draw a parallel between age and decline. Korte on the other hand sees age like a "complex mountain landscape with valleys and new peaks' and disputes the commonly held notion of life going inexorably downhill after middle age.

He notes that many of the physical and mental manifestations of age are seen in terms of damage, of deficits. And indeed, research confirms that older people learn more slowly, forget more, and are more easily distracted. Korte attributes this to the aging process of the brain -- and opposes a list of positive, age-related changes.

Numerous studies show that top scores for crucial capacities like emotional intelligence, logic and even language ability are only attained later in life. In the first stages of old age, people start to feel more satisfied with life. Also, the elderly have stockpiles of knowledge and experience to help them in social situations.

Korte also claims that they are better equipped to "handle the turbulence of life with more flexibility and stability." Scientists bundle these characteristics of age into a big word that has been associated with age for as long as anyone can remember: wisdom.

The secret to eternal youth

According to Korte, the way and speed at which people age is related not only to genes but also to lifestyle. He provides a catalogue of measures that people can adopt to develop the positive points of old age and reduce the risk of sickness, attaching particular importance to movement; he applauds all forms of physical and mental training. Anything that requires effort and gives pleasure keeps people young, he says.

The neurobiologist also believes that people who value others, life -- and aging -- age more slowly. In one experiment, seniors were placed for a week in an environment where the objects of everyday life, movies, songs, all dated from the 1950s. At the end, doctors examined participants and noted that their general condition had improved significantly. Another long-term study showed that people who view aging positively live seven-and-a-half years longer than people who don't.

Korte worries that many seniors see themselves as "in need of care, dependent, deficient" because they unconsciously adopt society's prejudices about the old -- and as a result "part of the lowered levels of performance in older age" are basically just the result of a self-fulfilling prophecy.

This objective scientist makes an emotional call for society to find the "collective courage to radically re-assess old age." He dreams of a society that gives its older folks neither too much nor too little consideration, and that encourages people to see their whole life in terms of the development of their potential. If young and old lived together more, learnt more from each other and worked together more, an aging society would no longer be brittle, he says; it would be wise.

Read the article in German in Die Welt.

Photo - Fokko Muller

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How China Flipped From Tech Copycat To Tech Leader

Long perceived as a country chasing Western tech, China's business and technological innovations are now influencing the rest of the world. Still lagging on some fronts, the future is now up for grabs.

At the World Semiconductor Conference in Nanjing, China, on June 9

Emmanuel Grasland

BEIJING — China's tech tycoons have fallen out of favor: Jack Ma (Alibaba), Colin Huang (Pinduoduo), Richard Liu (Tencent) and Zhang Yiming (ByteDance) have all been pressured by Beijing to leave their jobs or step back from a public role. Their time may be coming to an end, but the legacy remains exceptional. Under their reign, China has become a veritable window to the global future of technology.

TikTok is the perfect example. Launched in 2016, the video messaging app has been downloaded over two billion times worldwide. It has passed the 100-million active user mark in the United States. Thanks to TikTok's success, ByteDance, its parent company, has reached an exceptional level of influence on the internet.

For a long time, the West viewed China's digital ecosystem as a cheap imitation of Silicon Valley. The European and American media described the giants of the Asian superpower as the "Chinese Google" or "Chinese Amazon." But the tables have turned.

No Western equivalent to WeChat

The Asian superpower has forged cutting-edge business models that do not exist elsewhere. It is impossible to find a Western equivalent to the WeChat super-app (1.2 billion users), which is used for shopping as much as for making a medical appointment or obtaining credit.

The flow of innovation is now changing direction.

The roles have actually reversed: In a recent article, Les Echos describes the California-based social network IRL, as a "WeChat of the Western world."

Grégory Boutté, digital and customer relations director at the multinational luxury group Kering, explains, "The Chinese digital ecosystem is incredibly different, and its speed of evolution is impressive. Above all, the flow of innovation is now changing direction."

This is illustrated by the recent creation of "live shopping" events in France, which are hosted by celebrities and taken from a concept already popular in China.

10,000 new startups per day

There is an explosion of this phenomenon in the digital sphere. Rachel Daydou, Partner & China General Manager of the consulting firm Fabernovel in Shanghai, says, "With Libra, Facebook is trying to create a financial entity based on social media, just as WeChat did with WeChat Pay. Facebook Shop looks suspiciously like WeChat's mini-programs. Amazon Live is inspired by Taobao Live and YouTube Shopping by Douyin, the Chinese equivalent of TikTok."

In China, it is possible to go to fully robotized restaurants or to give a panhandler some change via mobile payment. Your wallet is destined to be obsolete because your phone can read restaurant menus and pay for your meal via a QR Code.

The country uses shared mobile chargers the way Europeans use bicycles, and is already testing electric car battery swap stations to avoid 30 minutes of recharging time.

Michael David, chief omnichannel director at LVMH, says, "The Chinese ecosystem is permanently bubbling with innovation. About 10,000 start-ups are created every day in the country."

China is also the most advanced country in the electric car market. With 370 models at the end of 2020, it had an offering that was almost twice as large as Europe's, according to the International Energy Agency.

Photo of a phone's screen displaying the logo of \u200bChina's super-app WeChat

China's super-app WeChat

Omar Marques/SOPA Images/ZUMA

The whole market runs on tech

Luca de Meo, CEO of French automaker Renault, said in June that China is "ahead of Europe in many areas, whether it's electric cars, connectivity or autonomous driving. You have to be there to know what's going on."

As a market, China is also a source of technological inspiration for Western companies, a world leader in e-commerce, solar, mobile payments, digital currency and facial recognition. It has the largest 5G network, with more than one million antennas up and running, compared to 400,000 in Europe.

Self-driving cars offer an interesting point of divergence between China and the West.

Just take the number of connected devices (1.1 billion), the time spent on mobile (six hours per day) and, above all, the magnitude of data collected to deploy and improve artificial intelligence algorithms faster than in Europe or the United States.

The groundbreaking field of self-driving cars offers an interesting point of divergence between China and the West. Artificial intelligence guru Kai-Fu Lee explains that China believes that we should teach the highway to speak to the car, imagining new services and rethinking cities to avoid cars crossing pedestrians, while the West does not intend to go that far.

Still lagging in some key sectors

There are areas where China is still struggling, such as semiconductors. Despite a production increase of nearly 50% per year, the country produces less than 40% of the chips it consumes, according to official data. This dependence threatens its ambitions in artificial intelligence, telecoms and autonomous vehicles. Chinese manufacturers work with an engraving fineness of 28 nm or more, far from those of Intel, Samsung or TSMC. They are unable to produce processors for high-performance PCs.

China's aerospace industry is also lagging behind the West. There are also no Chinese players among the top 20 life science companies on the stock market and there are doubts surrounding the efficacy of Sinovac and Sinopharm's COVID-19 vaccines. As of 2019, the country files more patents per year than the U.S., but far fewer are converted into marketable products.

Beijing knows its weaknesses and is working to eliminate them. Adopted in March, the nation's 14th five-year plan calls for a 7% annual increase in R&D spending between now and 2025, compared with 12% under the previous plan. Big data aside, that is basic math anyone can understand.
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