Brazil 2014

Soccer, The New Opiate Of The Masses

It may have begun as a game, but soccer has become a substitute for so many facets of people's lives, including politics and war, writes Colombian novelist Jose Luis Garces Gonzalez.

A proxy war?
A proxy war?
José Luis Garcés González*

BOGOTA — In the beginning, soccer was played with stones. From the start, it was a game for fun, and a bit of caveman competition. Then came tactics and strategy. Later it became art, trade, and an occupation. Today, it controls an immense part of society, swaying it this way and that.

Soccer has become a reflection of lifestyles, and is often said to be the new opiate of the masses. It has become a measure of people's passivity or aggressivity, their sense of innovation or conservatism. We use it as a means of personal identification. The team has become a kind of fatherland, a soul, something that gives us the victories that life will not. It is violence expressed or repressed. To the chagrin of fans and to society's detriment, its defeats amplify the little misfortunes that punctuate our daily lives.

In many societies, soccer tends to replace everything, sweeping aside political proposals, religious beliefs, family ties, economic upheaval and social injustice. It represents faith, the mother of all passions, and, in a word, ideology. Perhaps only love supercedes it at the personal level. It is the fifth estate — or is it the fourth?

What the increasingly mobile homo sapiens — or homo ludens — created as a game has become so many things, including a law-and-order issue. When the team has a setback, people feel hurt and become aggressive. Brawls, injuries and deaths ensue. Sometimes no loss or contrary decision is needed to unleash this violence. It can even blossom after a victory that was widely expected.

Remember Colombia's 5-0 win against Argentina in 1993. Some 80 people were killed in the celebrations that followed. Could this be the only country where a triumph becomes an invitation to the kingdom of death? Call it the apotheosis of the unsettled spirit or alienated body, a return to barbarianism, with victory as an excuse. Where is its logic? Not for nothing did French philosopher Descartes deem common sense to be singularly uncommon.

Hungarian "ultras" supporters — Photo: Pilgab

The beast sleeps in man's heart and the most illogical motive can unleash this dormant fury. The novelist Gesualdo Bufalino explained certain attitudes by observing that addiction to suffering induces people to live fortunate events as unnatural excesses. Thus, what should produce happiness leads by a terrible paradox to tragedy.

The new battlefield

As has been demonstrated, the public is not interested in the game, but in victory, in which it sees a debatable form of self-affirmation as individuals or nation. Seen like that, soccer becomes a proxy war.

Which makes one reflect that by releasing a measure of aggressivity, soccer has provoked one war (between Honduras and El Salvador) and helped avoid many. It has on occasion had a palliative effect — as in 1978, by giving the Argentine junta a veneer of tolerance and momentarily distracting from the crimes and disappearances occurring then in Argentina.

While, as Colombia's coach Carlos "Piscis" Restrepo says, in soccer "the only reality is the 90 minutes," the game has also created a monster whose tentacles reach far and wide into the social fabric. It shifts billions of dollars in a globalized world. It influences economics, psychology, calculation, anthropology, politics, philosophy, even literature.

Great novelists have written about soccer. Some see it as an exponent of post-modern culture and others, like Umberto Eco, call sports and thus soccer "the easiest substitute for political debate."

Now, technologies ensure that a game played in China or Berlin can be viewed or heard simultaneously in a little Colombian town. The global village has become a global field watched by a global audience. Consider our own youngsters, sporting Real Madrid, Barcelona or River Plate shirts in addition to those of local teams.

Like the drug trade, soccer engulfs the social body. Indeed, the national emblem is no longer a flag, shield or anthem — but a soccer team. The blood of heroes and worth of our ancestors have become a soccer ball. Round like the world it dominates.

*González is a novelist and professor at the University of Cordoba.

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In Argentina, A Visit To World's Highest Solar Energy Park

With loans and solar panels from China, the massive solar park has been opened a year and is already powering the surrounding areas. Now the Chinese supplier is pushing for an expansion.

960,000 solar panels have been installed at the Cauchari park

Silvia Naishtat

CAUCHARI — Driving across the border with Chile into the northwest Argentine department of Susques, you may spot what looks like a black mass in the distance. Arriving at a 4,000-meter altitude in the municipality of Cauchari, what comes into view instead is an assembly of 960,000 solar panels. It is the world's highest photovoltaic (PV) park, which is also the second biggest solar energy facility in Latin America, after Mexico's Aguascalientes plant.

Spread over 800 hectares in an arid landscape, the Cauchari park has been operating for a year, and has so far turned sunshine into 315 megawatts of electricity, enough to power the local provincial capital of Jujuy through the national grid.

It has also generated some $50 million for the province, which Governor Gerardo Morales has allocated to building 239 schools.

Abundant sunshine, low temperatures

The physicist Martín Albornoz says Cauchari, which means "link to the sun," is exposed to the best solar radiation anywhere. The area has 260 days of sunshine, with no smog and relatively low temperatures, which helps keep the panels in optimal conditions.

Its construction began with a loan of more than $331 million from China's Eximbank, which allowed the purchase of panels made in Shanghai. They arrived in Buenos Aires in 2,500 containers and were later trucked a considerable distance to the site in Cauchari . This was a titanic project that required 1,200 builders and 10-ton cranes, but will save some 780,000 tons of CO2 emissions a year.

It is now run by 60 technicians. Its panels, with a 25-year guarantee, follow the sun's path and are cleaned twice a year. The plant is expected to have a service life of 40 years. Its choice of location was based on power lines traced in the 1990s to export power to Chile, now fed by the park.

Chinese engineers working in an office at the Cauchari park


Chinese want to expand

The plant belongs to the public-sector firm Jemse (Jujuy Energía y Minería), created in 2011 by the province's then governor Eduardo Fellner. Jemse's president, Felipe Albornoz, says that once Chinese credits are repaid in 20 years, Cauchari will earn the province $600 million.

The Argentine Energy ministry must now decide on the park's proposed expansion. The Chinese would pay in $200 million, which will help install 400,000 additional panels and generate enough power for the entire province of Jujuy.

The park's CEO, Guillermo Hoerth, observes that state policies are key to turning Jujuy into a green province. "We must change the production model. The world is rapidly cutting fossil fuel emissions. This is a great opportunity," Hoerth says.

The province's energy chief, Mario Pizarro, says in turn that Susques and three other provincial districts are already self-sufficient with clean energy, and three other districts would soon follow.

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