Osservatore Romano, Sept. 9, 2015
In yet another step to loosen long-held practices inside the Catholic Church, Pope Francis has eased the process for how divorced Catholics can remarry and stay inside the Church.
Two papal edicts, known as motu proprios, were published Tuesday that open the way to make the process of marriage "annulment" simpler and faster. "Pope Francis Reforms The Canonical Process For Annulments" is Wednesday's front-page headline from the Vatican daily Osservatore Romano.
Since Catholicism doesn't recognize divorce, Catholics wishing to remarry within the Church, must seek an "annulment" of their prior nuptials. This is typically a long and complicated process in front of a tribunal to prove that the original marriage did not meet Church requirements.
"With these new motu proprios, Pope Francis is not only reforming but in a sense re-establishing the canonical process for annulments," Osservatore Romano writes. "The new norms must be examined in the light of the historical evolution of the procedure for annulments, especially regarding what was determined by Benedict XIV, who in 1741 established the process of the two conforming decisions in response to the abuses in said procedure committed by bishops and tribunals." A historic decision indeed; read here for further analysis from the Boston-based Catholic affairs website Crux.
Our carelessness toward the environment could be due, in part, to the functioning of a very primitive area of our brain: the striatum.
PARIS — Almost every week, a new scientific study alerts us to the degradation of the environment. And yet, we continue not to change anything fundamental in our systems of production and habits of consumption. Are we all suffering from blindness, or poisoned by denial?
In his popular books Le Bug humain (The Human Bug) and Où est le sens? (Where is the Sense?), Sébastien Bohler, a journalist in neuroscience and psychology, provides a much more rational explanation: The mechanism responsible for our propensity to destroy our natural environment is in fact a small, very deep and very primitive structure of our brain called the striatum.
This regulator of human motivation seems to have been programmed to favor behaviors that ensure the survival of the species.
Addictions to sex and social media
Since the dawn of humanity, gathering information about our environment, feeding ourselves, ensuring the transmission of our genes through sexual intercourse and asserting our social status have all been rewarded with a shot of dopamine, the 'pleasure hormone.'
Nothing has changed since then; except that, in our society of excess, there is no limit to the satisfaction of these needs. This leads to the overconsumption of food and addictions to everything from sex to social media — which together account for much of the world's destructive agricultural and energy practices.
No matter how much we realize that this is leading to our downfall, we can't help but relapse because we are prisoners of the dopamine pump in the striatum, which cannot be switched off.
Transverse section of striatum from a structural MRI image
According to Bohler, the only way out is to encourage the emergence of new values of sobriety, altruism and slowness. If adopted, these more sustainable notions could be recognized by the striatum as new sources of dopamine reward. But there's the challenge of promoting inspiring stories that infuse them with value.
Take the photo-collage exhibition "J'agis ici... et je m'y colle" ("I'm taking action here... and I'm sticking to it"), a collection of life-size portraits of residents committed to the energy transition, displayed on the walls of the French coastal city of La Rochelle.
Backed by the French National Center for Street Arts, photographer Martin Charpentier may be employing artistic techniques, but he's also tinkering with neuroscience in the process.
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