Geopolitics

Why The Pussy Riot Trial Is The Biggest Blow Of All To Russia's Reputation

On trial
On trial
Yelena Chernenko

MOSCOW - The three members of Pussy Riot, the Russian punk band accused of hooliganism for anunauthorized performance in a Moscow cathedral, had their last words in court on Wednesday after a weeklong trial. The verdict will be announced on August 17. For those outside Russia, this whole affair has been a litmus test for Russia’s democracy - and nobody seems to be happy with the test results thus far.

According to numbers from the Pew Research Center, in 2012 there was a significant change in the way that the rest of the world sees Russia - a change for the worse. In the U.S., people with a positive view of Russia went from 49% of the population in 2011 to 37% this year. There were similar changes around Europe: in Britain, people with a positive view of Russia dropped by 12 percentage points, to 38%; in Germany those numbers dropped by 14 percentage points to 33%; and down in France 17 percentage points to 36%. These are the lowest numbers in the past four years.

In a July meeting between the Russian President and the country’s diplomatic corps, Vladimir Putin lamented the fact that in his view, Russia’s reputation abroad is “distorted and doesn’t reflect the real situation.” In a closed-door meeting, the president said that improving Russia’s image should be one of the diplomats’ most important goals. But at the same time, many experts think that mission will turn out to be impossible, in light of the West’s reaction to recent events in Russia, notably the prosecution of the young women from Pussy Riot.

The wave a criticism directed at the Russian government has lifted up human rights’ defenders - Amnesty International has called the punk rock group members ‘prisoners of conscience.’ Several well-known western artists have joined the campaign to support Pussy Riot - from the Red Hot Chili Peppers and the Pet Shop Boys to Sting and Madonna. The affair has already been on the front pages of western newspapers for several weeks. Time Magazine wrote that in Russia “a kangaroo court goes on a witch hunt,” while the Economist baptized the Russian Orthodox Church “a force of conservatism and xenophobia,” in a “symbiotic embrace” with the Kremlin. The Guardian called the Pussy Riot trial a “theatre of the absurd.”

Finally, European and American politicians have joined the campaign. The U.S. State Department has called the affair “politically motivated.” Karel Shvartsenberg, the Czech Minister of Foreign Affairs, announced that he “admires” Pussy Riot. Denis MacShane, British MP and former Minister for Europe, has said that photographs of the courtroom remind him of the time of Gulags. Even the leader of the Alliance of Socialists and Democrats in the European Parliament, which is usually loyal to the Kremlin, has called the Russian government’s behavior “scandalous.”

All the politicians agree: they don’t support Pussy Riot’s actions, but consider that the government’s reaction disproportionate.

Estonian European MP Kristiina Ojuland told Kommersant that her colleagues are preparing a report on the situation in Russia, and that a large part of the report will be dedicated to the status of democracy and human rights. The European Parliament is also working on recommendations for the European Commission on the best policies for the European Union in relation to Russia. “The Pussy Riot affair will be in the report,” Ojuland said. “The European Commission is carefully following the trial, and in general, we tend to think that it is politically motivated.”

“The Pussy Riot prosecution, combined with the prosecution against (pro-democracy activist Alexsei) Navalniand the participants in the protests on May 6, has had an extremely negative, catastrophic effect on Russia’s image in the West,” said German expert on Russian affairs Hans-Henning Schroeder. “This is a sort of test for the Russian government: If the girls are given real prison time, even if it is not long, for many people in the West that will be confirmation of the opinion that Russia turning into a dictatorship.”

On the other hand, Arkady Moshes, expert on Russian-EU relations from the Finish Institute of International Affairs, doubts that a worse image will have serious consequences for Russia’s political and economic relationship with Western partners. “Russia’s image abroad is negative, there are even elements of disgust,” he told Kommersant. “But emotion is one thing, and politics is another.”



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Green

Ecological Angst In India, A Mining Dumpsite As Neighbor

Local villagers in western India have been forced to live with a mining waste site on the edge of town. What happens when you wake up one day and the giant mound of industrial waste has imploded?

The mining dumpsite is situated just outside of the Badi village in the coastal state of Gujarat

Sukanya Shantha

BADI — Last week, when the men and women from the Bharwad community in this small village in western India stepped out for their daily work to herd livestock, they were greeted with a strange sight.

The 20-meter-high small hill that had formed at the open-cast mining dumpsite had suddenly sunk. Unsure of the reason behind the sudden caving-in, they immediately informed other villagers. In no time, word had traveled far, even drawing the attention of environment specialists and activists from outside town.

This mining dumpsite situated less than 500 meters outside of the Badi village in the coastal state of Gujarat has been a matter of serious concern ever since the Gujarat Power Corporation Limited began lignite mining work here in early 2017. The power plant is run by the Power Gujarat State Electricity Corporation Limited, which was previously known as the Bhavnagar Energy Company Ltd.

Vasudev Gohil, a 43-year-old resident of Badi village says that though the dumping site is technically situated outside the village, locals must pass the area on a daily basis.


"We are constantly on tenterhooks and looking for danger signs," he says. Indeed, their state of alert is how the sudden change in the shape of the dumpsite was noticed in the first place.

Can you trust environmental officials?

For someone visiting the place for the first time, the changes may not stand out. "But we have lived all our lives here, we know every little detail of this village. And when a 150-meter-long stretch cave-in by over 25-30 feet, the change can't be overlooked," Gohil adds.

This is not the first time that the dumpsite has worried local residents. Last November, a large part of the flattened part of the dumpsite had developed deep cracks and several flat areas had suddenly got elevated. While the officials had attributed this significant elevation to the high pressure of water in the upper strata of soil in the region, environment experts had pointed to seismic activities. The change is evident even today, nearly a year since it happened.

It could have sunk because of the rain.

After the recent incident, when the villagers raised an alarm and sent a written complaint to the regional Gujarat Pollution Control Board, an official visit to the site was arranged, along with the district administration and the mining department.

The regional pollution board officer Bhavnagar, A.G. Oza, insists the changes "aren't worrisome" and attributes it to the weather.

"The area received heavy rain this time. It is possible that the soil could have sunk in because of the rain," he tells The Wire. The Board, he says, along with the mining department, is now trying to assess if the caving-in had any impact on the ground surface.

"We visited the site as soon as a complaint was made. Samples have already been sent to the laboratory and we will have a clear idea only once the reports are made available," Oza adds.

Women from the Surkha village have to travel several kilometers to find potable water

Sukanya Shantha/The Wire

A questionable claim

That the dumpsite had sunk in was noticeable for at least three days between October 1 and 3, but Rohit Prajapati of an environmental watchdog group Paryavaran Suraksha Samiti, noted that it was not the first time.

"This is the third time in four years that something so strange is happening. It is a disaster in the making and the authorities ought to examine the root cause of the problem," Prajapati says, adding that the department has repeatedly failed to properly address the issue.

He also contests the GPCB's claim that excess rain could lead to something so drastic. "Then why was similar impact not seen on other dumping sites in the region? One cannot arrive at conclusions for geological changes without a deeper study of them," he says. "It can have deadly implications."

Living in pollution

The villagers have also accused the GPCB of overlooking their complaint of water pollution which has rendered a large part of the land, most importantly, the gauchar or grazing land, useless.

"In the absence of a wall or a barrier, the pollutant has freely mixed with the water bodies here and has slowly started polluting both our soil and water," complains 23- year-old Nikul Kantharia.

He says ever since the mining project took off in the region, he, like most other villagers has been forced to take his livestock farther away to graze. "Nothing grows on the grazing land anymore and the grass closer to the dumpsite makes our cattle ill," Kantharia claims.

The mining work should have been stopped long ago

Prajapati and Bharat Jambucha, a well-known environmental activist and proponent of organic farming from the region, both point to blatant violations of environmental laws in the execution of mining work, with at least 12 violations cited by local officials. "But nothing happened after that. Mining work has continued without any hassles," Jambucha says. Among some glaring violations include the absence of a boundary wall around the dumping site and proper disposal of mining effluents.

The mining work has also continued without a most basic requirement – effluent treatment plant and sewage treatment plant at the mining site, Prajapati points out. "The mining work should have been stopped long ago. And the company should have been levied a heavy fine. But no such thing happened," he adds.

In some villages, the groundwater level has depleted over the past few years and villagers attribute it to the mining project. Women from Surkha village travel several kilometers outside for potable water. "This is new. Until five years ago, we had some water in the village and did not have to lug water every day," says Shilaben Kantharia.

The mine has affected the landscape around the villages

Sukanya Shantha/The Wire

Resisting lignite mining

The lignite mining project has a long history of resistance. Agricultural land, along with grazing land were acquired from the cluster of 12 adjoining villages in the coastal Ghogha taluka between 1994 and 1997. The locals estimate that villagers here lost anything between 40-100% of their land to the project. "We were paid a standard Rs 40,000 per bigha," Narendra, a local photographer, says.

The money, Narendra says, felt decent in 1994 but for those who had been dependent on this land, the years to come proved very challenging. "Several villagers have now taken a small patch of land in the neighboring villages on lease and are cultivating cotton and groundnut there," Narendra says.

They were dependent on others' land for work.

Bharat Jambucha says things get further complicated for the communities which were historically landless. "Most families belonging to the Dalit or other marginalized populations in the region never owned any land. They were dependent on others' land for work. Once villagers lost their land to the project, the landless were pushed out of the village," he adds. His organization, Prakrutik Kheti Juth, has been at the forefront, fighting for the rights of the villages affected in the lignite mining project.

In 2017, when the mining project finally took off, villagers from across 12 villages protested. The demonstration was disrupted after police used force and beat many protesters. More than 350 of them were booked for rioting.

The villagers, however, did not give up. Protests and hunger strikes have continued from time to time. A few villagers even sent a letter to the President of India threatening that they would commit suicide if the government did not return their land.

"We let them have our land for over 20 years," says Gohil.

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