April 17, 2012
ISTANBUL -- Religion is on the rise. In Turkey, the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) – known for its conservative roots – governs without any serious rival. Recently, the AKP passed a new education bill that will promote more religious education in public schools. Historically, the military and the judiciary powers acted as counterweights to religious conservatism, but both of these institutions have lost their former stature. Is Turkey inching closer to becoming a Sharia-law state?
Broad segments in Turkey share this concern. A growing number of people are even expressing regret that the country's main opposition group, the Republican People's Party (CHP), has taken a less hard-line stance on state-enforced secularism.
When I point out that our legal system has been moving closer to European Union standards during the AKP government, I often encounter the same criticism: these reforms are just a ruse. The AKP's real aim is to insidiously implement Sharia law.
I'm well aware of the controversy surrounding this debate, but I feel compelled to make one point clear: Turkish legal culture is not moving toward religious law. It is clearly oriented in the direction of European legal standards. In fact, this trend has been obvious since the Tanzimat reforms instituted by the Ottoman government in the 19th century. These reforms replaced the former legal code with laws transplanted directly from Europe, using these standards in all areas of life except for family and inheritance law. The leader behind these reforms was Sultan Abdul Hamid.
At the "Legal Reform Commission" debates, the great Islamist thinker Elmali Hamdi Efendi argued that Islamic law was not sufficient to meet contemporary needs and that Western laws needed to answer these challenges. Non-Muslim legal experts were brought to the commission to counsel on reforms. The commission translated the entire Swiss Civil Code into Turkish.
These reforms brought monumental changes to society, but they were not a permanent solution in a rapidly changing society. New reforms were attempted from 1916-1925, but it wasn't until 1926 that new Western-inspired laws began to be instituted on a systematic scale. This approach was hasty and led to some unintended consequences, but in principle is was the right move to make. Looking back, these reforms set the pace for long-term development of rule of law.
From Ataturk to AKP
The early years of the Turkish republic – constituted in 1923 – combined Europeanization with revolutionary projects to secularize a traditionally religious society. This might suggest that radical secularization and Europeanization go hand-in-hand. But if this is the case, how do we grasp the AKP's term in power, which has heralded the most comprehensive secularization and Europeanization campaign since the early republic?
In 2004, the AKP government proposed amending the Turkish Constitution to recognize the supremacy of international laws, and began reforming criminal and commercial codes to match European standards. This new legislation brought improvements on gender issues and individual liberties.
Serious efforts for further reforms are underway on the part of the Justice Ministry, Constitutional Court and the High Council of Judges and Prosecutors. These efforts include cooperation with European legal experts on methods for continued reform of Turkey's legal culture.
Paradoxically, both religious conservatism and secularization have been on the rise during the AKP-era. Interestingly, a study led by two prominent Turkish scholars, Binnaz Toprak and Ali Carkoglu, shows that in recent years religious conservatives have become more accepting of secular legal regimes. This is because both secularism and religious conservatism are becoming more liberal in their character, meaning they no longer represent a threat to one another.
But won't a rise in religious conservatism create social pressure for those who do not subscribe to the same beliefs as the majority? This is a separate issue, with its own layers of complexity.
However, if we focus on the institutional and legal aspects, the surprising truth is that the AKP government shares much in common with the early Turkish republic. The difference is that today's Europe is more liberal, making for a more liberal evolution in Turkey. In today's Turkey, radical secularism no longer resonates. Only a social democratic platform stands a chance of challenging the AKP's popularity. Singing the same old tune just won't work any more.
Read the original article in Turkish
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Will flying be greener? More comfortable? Less frequent? As the world eyes a post-COVID reality, we look at ways the airline industry has been changing through a pandemic that has devastated air travel.
October 17, 2021
It's hard to overstate the damage the pandemic has had on the airline industry, with global revenues dropping by 40% in 2020 and dozens of airlines around the world filing for bankruptcy. One moment last year when the gravity became particularly apparent was when Asian carriers (in countries with low COVID-19 rates) began offering "flights to nowhere" — starting and ending at the same airport as a way to earn some cash from would-be travelers who missed the in-flight experience.
More than a year later today, experts believe that air traffic won't return to normal levels until 2024.
But beyond the financial woes, the unprecedented slowdown in air travel may bring some silver linings as key aspects of the industry are bound to change once back in full spin, with some longer-term effects on aviation already emerging. Here are some major transformations to expect in the coming years:
Cleaner aviation fuel
The U.S. administration of President Joe Biden and the airline industry recently agreed to the ambitious goal of replacing all jet fuel with sustainable alternatives by 2050. Already in a decade, the U.S. aims to produce three billion gallons of sustainable fuel — about one-tenth of current total use — from waste, plants and other organic matter.
While greening the world's road transport has long been at the top of the climate agenda, aviation is not even included under the Paris Agreement. But with air travel responsible for roughly 12% of all CO2 emissions from transport, and stricter international regulation on the horizon, the industry is increasingly seeking sustainable alternatives to petroleum-based fuel.
Fees imposed on the airline industry should be funneled into a climate fund.
In Germany, state broadcaster Deutsche Welle reports that the world's first factory producing CO2-neutral kerosene recently started operations in the town of Wertle, in Lower Saxony. The plant, for which Lufthansa is set to become the pilot customer, will produce CO2-neutral kerosene through a circular production cycle incorporating sustainable and green energy sources and raw materials. Energy is supplied through wind turbines from the surrounding area, while the fuel's main ingredients are water and waste-generated CO2 coming from a nearby biogas plant.
Farther north, Norwegian Air Shuttle has recently submitted a recommendation to the government that fees imposed on the airline industry should be funneled into a climate fund aimed at developing cleaner aviation fuel, according to Norwegian news site E24. The airline also suggested that the government significantly reduce the tax burden on the industry over a longer period to allow airlines to recover from the pandemic.
High-flying ambitions for the sector
Hydrogen and electrification
Some airline manufacturers are betting on hydrogen, with research suggesting that the abundant resource has the potential to match the flight distances and payload of a current fossil-fuel aircraft. If derived from renewable resources like sun and wind power, hydrogen — with an energy-density almost three times that of gasoline or diesel — could work as a fully sustainable aviation fuel that emits only water.
One example comes out of California, where fuel-cell specialist HyPoint has entered a partnership with Pennsylvania-based Piasecki Aircraft Corporation to manufacture 650-kilowatt hydrogen fuel cell systems for aircrafts. According to HyPoint, the system — scheduled for commercial availability product by 2025 — will have four times the energy density of existing lithium-ion batteries and double the specific power of existing hydrogen fuel-cell systems.
Meanwhile, Rolls-Royce is looking to smash the speed record of electrical flights with a newly designed 23-foot-long model. Christened the Spirit of Innovation, the small plane took off for the first time earlier this month and successfully managed a 15-minute long test flight. However, the company has announced plans to fly the machine faster than 300 mph (480 km/h) before the year is out, and also to sell similar propulsion systems to companies developing electrical air taxis or small commuter planes.
New aircraft designs
Airlines are also upgrading aircraft design to become more eco-friendly. Air France just received its first upgrade of a single-aisle, medium-haul aircraft in 33 years. Fleet director Nicolas Bertrand told French daily Les Echos that the new A220 — that will replace the old A320 model — will reduce operating costs by 10%, fuel consumption and CO2 emissions by 20% and noise footprint by 34%.
International first class will be very nearly a thing of the past.
The pandemic has also ushered in a new era of consumer demand where privacy and personal space is put above luxury. The retirement of older aircraft caused by COVID-19 means that international first class — already in steady decline over the last decades — will be very nearly a thing of the past. Instead, airplane manufacturers around the world (including Delta, China Eastern, JetBlue, British Airways and Shanghai Airlines) are betting on a new generation of super-business minisuites where passengers have a privacy door. The idea, which was introduced by Qatar Airways in 2017, is to offer more personal space than in regular business class but without the lavishness of first class.
Aerial view of Rome's Fiumicino airportcommons.wikimedia.org
Rome's Fiumicino Airport has become the first in the world to earn "the COVID-19 5-Star Airport Rating" from Skytrax, an international airline and airport review and ranking site, Italian daily La Repubblica reports. Skytrax, which publishes a yearly annual ranking of the world's best airports and issues the World Airport Awards, this year created a second list to specifically call out airports with the best health and hygiene standards.
The pandemic has also accelerated the shift towards contactless traveling, with more airports harnessing the power of biometrics — such as facial recognition or fever screening — to reduce touchpoints and human contact. Similar technology can also be used to more efficiently scan physical objects, such as explosive detection. Ultimately, passengers will be able to "check-in" and go through a security screening anywhere at the airports, removing queues and bottlenecks.
Data privacy issues
However, as pointed out in Canadian publication The Lawyer's Daily, increased use of AI and biometrics also means increased privacy concerns. For example, health and hygiene measures like digital vaccine passports also mean that airports can collect data on who has been vaccinated and the type of vaccine used.
Auckland Airport, New Zealand
The billion-dollar question: Will we fly less?
At the end of the day, even with all these (mostly positive) changes that we've seen take shape over the past 18 months, the industry faces major uncertainty about whether air travel will ever return to the pre-COVID levels. Not only are people wary about being in crowded and closed airplanes, but the worth of long-distance business travel in particular is being questioned as many have seen that meetings can function remotely, via Zoom and other online apps.
Trying to forecast the future, experts point to the years following the 9/11 terrorist attacks as at least a partial blueprint for what a recovery might look like in the years ahead. Twenty years ago, as passenger enthusiasm for flying waned amid security fears following the attacks, airlines were forced to cancel flights and put planes into storage.
40% of Swedes intend to travel less
According to McKinsey, leisure trips and visits to family and friends rebounded faster than business flights, which took four years to return to pre-crisis levels in the UK. This time too, business travel is expected to lag, with the consulting firm estimating only 80% recovery of pre-pandemic levels by 2024.
But the COVID-19 crisis also came at a time when passengers were already rethinking their travel habits due to climate concerns, while worldwide lockdowns have ushered in a new era of remote working. In Sweden, a survey by the country's largest research company shows that 40% of the population intend to travel less even after the pandemic ends. Similarly in the UK, nearly 60% of adults said during the spring they intended to fly less after being vaccinated against COVID-19 — with climate change cited as a top reason for people wanting to reduce their number of flights, according to research by the University of Bristol.
At the same time, major companies are increasingly forced to face the music of the environmental movement, with several corporations rolling out climate targets over the last few years. Today, five of the 10 biggest buyers of corporate air travel in the US are technology companies: Amazon, IBM, Google, Apple and Microsoft, according to Taipei Times, all of which have set individual targets for environmental stewardship. As such, the era of flying across the Atlantic for a two-hour executive meeting is likely in its dying days.
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SOUTH CHINA MORNING POST
South China Morning Post (SCMP) is an English-language daily published in Hong Kong. Co-founded in 1903 by the British journalist Alfred Cunningham, the newspaper has an estimated circulation of 104.000. It is currently owned by Alibaba group.
La Repubblica is a daily newspaper published in Rome, Italy, and is positioned on the center-left. Founded in 1976, it is owned by Gruppo Editoriale L'Espresso.
E24 NÃ¦ringsliv is a Norwegian, online business newspaper launched on 18 April 2006. In the course of the first week of operations it became the largest business web site in Norway. In week 46, 2008, it had 575,000 unique users per week.
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