The Iran-Syria Axis of Assassins Dating From Medieval Times

Masyaf Castle in Syria
Masyaf Castle in Syria
Berthold Seewald

Early August, Syria's rebels kidnapped 48 Iranian pilgrims in Damascus. The rebels claimed their prisoners were not pilgrims but in fact elite Iranian soldiers sent by Teheran to support the Assad government. A murderous sect known as the Assassins had a similar Iran-Syria partnership in the Middle Ages.

During the Middle Ages, the mountainous regions of Syria and Iran harbored the Ismailis, an esoteric Shi’a sect whose existence was marked by oppression and martyrdom. A radical branch known as the Assassins (Nizari Ismailis) were feared suicide attackers who terrorized the Muslim world from the 11th to the 13th centuries.

Although the Assassins are now considered predecessors of Islamic terrorists, the Christian Crusaders were lesser enemies to them than the Sunni principalities that they went after unrelentingly. Unlike “Twelvers” – the largest branch of Shi’a Muslims, who believe in 12 divinely ordained leaders, known as the Twelve Imams – the Ismailis, also known as the “Seveners,” believe that the true successor to the 6th Imam in 765 CE was not Musa al Kazim but his brother Ismail, and that the latter will return when the world ends.

When the Ismaili Fatimid Caliphate in Cairo – which lasted from 909 to 1171 – fell apart, the Ismailis were forced underground. And then in the Alborz Mountains of Iran a charismatic religious leader named Hassan-i Sabbah (around 1034-1124) spurred vengeance. From his fort of Alamut he developed a strategy of calculated terror that brought sudden death to sovereigns, princes, generals and governors, as British historian Bernard Lewis, author of a book on the Assassins, writes.

The bloody deeds of the individuals who carried out these killings were supposed to open a direct door to heaven for them, initiates and successful murderers who no longer had a future on Earth. Their fanatical leader was also a missionary and soon had a growing group of followers, primarily in Syria, where so many battles between Muslims and Christians played out.

Hassan-i Sabbah’s follower Rashid ad-Din Sinan (around 1133-1192), who was known as the Prince or Elder of the Mountain, began to terrorize Syria from his stronghold of Masyaf. While his name also became known in the West, most of his victims were among his Muslim neighbors.

It wasn’t until Masyaf Castle was surrendered to the Mongols in 1260 and then claimed by the Cairo Mamluks that the Assassins were wiped out.

Today, Aga Khan IV is the 49th Nizari Ismaili Imam, and the Ismailis are among the most tolerant and peaceful of Muslim sects. But in the ongoing Syrian uprising, the Damascus-Teheran axis of terror harks back to the medieval tradition of the Assassins.

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How China Flipped From Tech Copycat To Tech Leader

Long perceived as a country chasing Western tech, China's business and technological innovations are now influencing the rest of the world. Still lagging on some fronts, the future is now up for grabs.

At the World Semiconductor Conference in Nanjing, China, on June 9

Emmanuel Grasland

BEIJING — China's tech tycoons have fallen out of favor: Jack Ma (Alibaba), Colin Huang (Pinduoduo), Richard Liu (Tencent) and Zhang Yiming (ByteDance) have all been pressured by Beijing to leave their jobs or step back from a public role. Their time may be coming to an end, but the legacy remains exceptional. Under their reign, China has become a veritable window to the global future of technology.

TikTok is the perfect example. Launched in 2016, the video messaging app has been downloaded over two billion times worldwide. It has passed the 100-million active user mark in the United States. Thanks to TikTok's success, ByteDance, its parent company, has reached an exceptional level of influence on the internet.

For a long time, the West viewed China's digital ecosystem as a cheap imitation of Silicon Valley. The European and American media described the giants of the Asian superpower as the "Chinese Google" or "Chinese Amazon." But the tables have turned.

No Western equivalent to WeChat

The Asian superpower has forged cutting-edge business models that do not exist elsewhere. It is impossible to find a Western equivalent to the WeChat super-app (1.2 billion users), which is used for shopping as much as for making a medical appointment or obtaining credit.

The flow of innovation is now changing direction.

The roles have actually reversed: In a recent article, Les Echos describes the California-based social network IRL, as a "WeChat of the Western world."

Grégory Boutté, digital and customer relations director at the multinational luxury group Kering, explains, "The Chinese digital ecosystem is incredibly different, and its speed of evolution is impressive. Above all, the flow of innovation is now changing direction."

This is illustrated by the recent creation of "live shopping" events in France, which are hosted by celebrities and taken from a concept already popular in China.

10,000 new startups per day

There is an explosion of this phenomenon in the digital sphere. Rachel Daydou, Partner & China General Manager of the consulting firm Fabernovel in Shanghai, says, "With Libra, Facebook is trying to create a financial entity based on social media, just as WeChat did with WeChat Pay. Facebook Shop looks suspiciously like WeChat's mini-programs. Amazon Live is inspired by Taobao Live and YouTube Shopping by Douyin, the Chinese equivalent of TikTok."

In China, it is possible to go to fully robotized restaurants or to give a panhandler some change via mobile payment. Your wallet is destined to be obsolete because your phone can read restaurant menus and pay for your meal via a QR Code.

The country uses shared mobile chargers the way Europeans use bicycles, and is already testing electric car battery swap stations to avoid 30 minutes of recharging time.

Michael David, chief omnichannel director at LVMH, says, "The Chinese ecosystem is permanently bubbling with innovation. About 10,000 start-ups are created every day in the country."

China is also the most advanced country in the electric car market. With 370 models at the end of 2020, it had an offering that was almost twice as large as Europe's, according to the International Energy Agency.

Photo of a phone's screen displaying the logo of \u200bChina's super-app WeChat

China's super-app WeChat

Omar Marques/SOPA Images/ZUMA

The whole market runs on tech

Luca de Meo, CEO of French automaker Renault, said in June that China is "ahead of Europe in many areas, whether it's electric cars, connectivity or autonomous driving. You have to be there to know what's going on."

As a market, China is also a source of technological inspiration for Western companies, a world leader in e-commerce, solar, mobile payments, digital currency and facial recognition. It has the largest 5G network, with more than one million antennas up and running, compared to 400,000 in Europe.

Self-driving cars offer an interesting point of divergence between China and the West.

Just take the number of connected devices (1.1 billion), the time spent on mobile (six hours per day) and, above all, the magnitude of data collected to deploy and improve artificial intelligence algorithms faster than in Europe or the United States.

The groundbreaking field of self-driving cars offers an interesting point of divergence between China and the West. Artificial intelligence guru Kai-Fu Lee explains that China believes that we should teach the highway to speak to the car, imagining new services and rethinking cities to avoid cars crossing pedestrians, while the West does not intend to go that far.

Still lagging in some key sectors

There are areas where China is still struggling, such as semiconductors. Despite a production increase of nearly 50% per year, the country produces less than 40% of the chips it consumes, according to official data. This dependence threatens its ambitions in artificial intelligence, telecoms and autonomous vehicles. Chinese manufacturers work with an engraving fineness of 28 nm or more, far from those of Intel, Samsung or TSMC. They are unable to produce processors for high-performance PCs.

China's aerospace industry is also lagging behind the West. There are also no Chinese players among the top 20 life science companies on the stock market and there are doubts surrounding the efficacy of Sinovac and Sinopharm's COVID-19 vaccines. As of 2019, the country files more patents per year than the U.S., but far fewer are converted into marketable products.

Beijing knows its weaknesses and is working to eliminate them. Adopted in March, the nation's 14th five-year plan calls for a 7% annual increase in R&D spending between now and 2025, compared with 12% under the previous plan. Big data aside, that is basic math anyone can understand.
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