The Built-In Risks Of China-U.S. Military Relations

History says a hegemonic power and a rising power may be inevitably bound for war. What both Washington and Beijing can do to avoid that.

Chinese Defense Minister Chang Wanquan and U.S. Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel review the honor guard in Beijing
Chinese Defense Minister Chang Wanquan and U.S. Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel review the honor guard in Beijing
Chen Qin

BEIJING — U.S. Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel’s recently completed his first trip to China since taking over at the helm of the Pentagon, and there were plenty of signs along his four-day itinerary to signal a shifting military relationship between the two world powers.

Hagel was the first foreign dignitary to embark on China’s first aircraft carrier, the Liaoning, which was both a sign of a new openness in the Chinese military and the importance it attaches to Sino-U.S. military relations.

Still, not all is smooth sailing. The occasional verbal sparring between Hagel and top Chinese military officials reflects the making of a new type of relationship between the two countries — a straight answer to a straight question.

At an April 8 joint press conference, Chinese Defense Minister Chang Wanquan criticized America’s stance on the territorial disputes between China and U.S. allies Japan and the Philippines. He claimed that China “will not compromise” on safeguarding its territory, and “the Chinese army is always on call, ready to fight and to win.”

Meanwhile, Fan Changlong, China’s vice chairman of the Central Military Commission, went on to point out that “Chinese people are not happy” about Hagel’s statement a week earlier in Hawaii when meeting Japanese Defense Minister Itsunori Onodera. Hagel had stressed that on the Diaoyu Islands issue, the United States strongly opposes any unilateral attempt to weaken the administrative jurisdiction of Japan, and that the U.S. supports Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s plan for the legalization of collective self-defense. He said that coercion and intimidation can only lead to conflict.

A weather vane

That China and America are both “straightforward” in their attitude reflects that substantial differences in strategic interests are very real. And yet, the open dialogue also reflects a shared understanding that increasing mutual trust — and reducing miscalculation — is in the mutual interest of both nations.

When meeting with Hagel on April 9, President Xi said that the two countries should adhere to no conflict, no confrontation, mutual respect, and enhancing pragmatic collaboration in various fields. The effect should be controlling differences and sensitive issues so as to steer the new Sino-U.S. “big power relationship” in the right direction.

Military relations have a special significance in Sino-U.S. relations and are often interpreted as a weather vane or barometer. In the 1980s, the military relationship enjoyed a brief honeymoon period, during which the two nations cooperated closely on armament and military-technical levels. Unfortunately, this didn’t last long. After America imposed sanctions on China following the Tiananmen Square incident in 1989, there was a long period of stagnation in the two countries’ military exchanges.

Subsequent events such as the Taiwan Strait crisis, the U.S. bombing of the Chinese embassy in Yugoslavia, the South China Sea plane collision and U.S. arms sales to Taiwan have all contributed to the many ups and downs of the two countries’ military relations.

These fluctuations are related to the largely unspoken nature of the antagonism between the two countries: the United States wants to maintain its hegemony while China wants to expand its security position.

From a historical perspective, rarely can the relations between a hegemonic power and a rising country remain stable. Conflicts tend to arise. This makes their military exchanges all the more important, since only the straightforward dialogue of their common concerns can the two countries dissolve potential conflicts and maintain stability.

But the reality is that Sino-U.S. military exchanges lag far behind their other bilateral exchanges. Of course, the senstive nature of military matters makes it virtually impossible for China and the United States to go into detailed discussions like allies. And so for the time being, the China-U.S. military cooperation and exchanges are mainly limited to humanitarian assistance, disaster relief and peacekeeping.

Indeed, the next phase for expansion is cooperation on military education and training following last year’s meeting in California between President Xi Jinping and President Barack Obama.

Indeed, now that Obama is no longer under re-election pressure, he is freer in his policies and bound to be more assertive in his strategy of rebalancing Asia-Pacific policy. At the same time, since China’s new leadership took office its foreign policy has shifted from a low-profile position to a more confident stance and is hoping to gain the international image and status that goes with being a major power.

A reset on Sino-U.S. military cooperation can help circumvent the historical trap of a war between a rising power and an existing one. Differences of interests are bound to exist, and the first step is not to pretend that they don’t.

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What It Means When The Jews Of Germany No Longer Feel Safe

A neo-Nazi has been buried in the former grave of a Jewish musicologist Max Friedlaender – not an oversight, but a deliberate provocation. This is just one more example of antisemitism on the rise in Germany, and society's inability to respond.

At a protest against antisemitism in Berlin

Eva Marie Kogel


BERLIN — If you want to check the state of your society, there's a simple test: as the U.S. High Commissioner for Germany, John Jay McCloy, said in 1949, the touchstone for a democracy is the well-being of Jews. This litmus test is still relevant today. And it seems Germany would not pass.

Incidents are piling up. Most recently, groups of neo-Nazis from across the country traveled to a church near Berlin for the funeral of a well-known far-right figure. He was buried in the former grave of Jewish musicologist Max Friedlaender, a gravesite chosen deliberately by the right-wing extremists.

The incident at the cemetery

They intentionally chose a Jewish grave as an act of provocation, trying to gain maximum publicity for this act of desecration. And the cemetery authorities at the graveyard in Stahnsdorf fell for it. The church issued an immediate apology, calling it a "terrible mistake" and saying they "must immediately see whether and what we can undo."

There are so many incidents that get little to no media attention.

It's unfathomable that this burial was allowed to take place at all, but now the cemetery authorities need to make a decision quickly about how to put things right. Otherwise, the grave may well become a pilgrimage site for Holocaust deniers and antisemites.

The incident has garnered attention in the international press and it will live long in the memory. Like the case of singer-songwriter Gil Ofarim, who recently claimed he was subjected to antisemitic abuse at a hotel in Leipzig. Details of the crime are still being investigated. But there are so many other incidents that get little to no media attention.

Photo of the grave of Jewish musicologist Max Friedlaender

The grave of Jewish musicologist Max Friedlaender

Jens Kalaene/dpa/ZUMA

Crimes against Jews are rising

Across all parts of society, antisemitism is on the rise. Until a few years ago, Jewish life was seen as an accepted part of German society. Since the attack on the synagogue in Halle in 2019, the picture has changed: it was a bitter reminder that right-wing terror against Jewish people has a long, unbroken history in Germany.

Stories have abounded about the coronavirus crisis being a Jewish conspiracy; meanwhile, Muslim antisemitism is becoming louder and more forceful. The anti-Israel boycott movement BDS rears its head in every debate on antisemitism, just as left-wing or post-colonial thinking are part of every discussion.

Jewish life needs to be allowed to step out of the shadows.

Since 2015, the number of antisemitic crimes recorded has risen by about a third, to 2,350. But victims only report around 20% of cases. Some choose not to because they've had bad experiences with the police, others because they're afraid of the perpetrators, and still others because they just want to put it behind them. Victims clearly hold out little hope of useful reaction from the state – so crimes go unreported.

And the reality of Jewish life in Germany is a dark one. Sociologists say that Jewish children are living out their "identity under siege." What impact does it have on them when they can only go to nursery under police protection? Or when they hear Holocaust jokes at school?

Germany needs to take its antisemitism seriously

This shows that the country of commemorative services and "stumbling blocks" placed in sidewalks as a memorial to victims of the Nazis has lost its moral compass. To make it point true north again, antisemitism needs to be documented from the perspective of those affected, making it visible to the non-Jewish population. And Jewish life needs to be allowed to step out of the shadows.

That is the first thing. The second is that we need to talk about specifically German forms of antisemitism. For example, the fact that in no other EU country are Jewish people so often confronted about the Israeli government's policies (according to a survey, 41% of German Jews have experienced this, while the EU average is 28%). Projecting the old antisemitism onto the state of Israel offers people a more comfortable target for their arguments.

Our society needs to have more conversations about antisemitism. The test of German democracy, as McCloy called it, starts with taking these concerns seriously and talking about them. We need to have these conversations because it affects all of us. It's about saving our democracy. Before it's too late.

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