Geopolitics

Rejected, Unseen Or Beloved: The Varied Roles of Asia's First Ladies

Peng Liyuan and her husband Chinese President Xi Jinping, with French President Francois Hollande
Peng Liyuan and her husband Chinese President Xi Jinping, with French President Francois Hollande
Sophie Mühlmann

SINGAPORE — Jashodaben Modi arrives at the police station sitting on the luggage rack of her brother's motor bike. A simple woman, she wears a white cotton sari with an orange top underneath, wire frame glasses, and her grey hair in a braid. She wants to lodge a complaint with the police of the Mehsana District in the Indian state of Gujarat. The complaint is about her bodyguards, four heavily built men who follow her in an air-conditioned limousine as she makes her way around by bus or motor bike taxi.

What's more, the guards expect to be treated like guests. Jashodaben is expected to cook for them and make their beds. She says she's afraid for her life, which is not unreasonable since Indira Gandhi was murdered by one of her bodyguards.

Jashodaben Modi is not just anybody: She is India's First Lady, even though very few Indians know of her existence. Her husband, Prime Minister Narendra Modi, prefers not to talk about his wife. She doesn't fit into his fastidiously crafted image of ascetic Hindu who lives only for his work.

And so the inconspicuous 62-year-old former teacher has been living with her older brother Ashok instead of with her husband for over four decades. It was only when she went to the police with cautious questions about what privileges she had as wife of the prime minister that she came in for wider notice.

That Prime Minister Modi was married came to public attention when he handed in the papers for his candidacy. Civil status: married. Wife's name: Jashodaben. Residence: no information.

It was an embarrassing revelation in that the Hindu nationalist had always boasted about being unattached, saying with outspread arms and moist lips during the campaign, "I enjoy being alone," and "I have no family ties. So who would benefit if I were corrupt?"

Certainly not Jashodaben. And in chauvinistic India, the story of Modi's spurned wife didn't damage his reputation. He was elected prime minister in a blaze of glory. The fallout for his wife? She has to wait on her bodyguards and meanwhile fears for her life.

In the parting of her hair, Jashodaben wears the Sindoor, the traditional Hindu symbol of cinnabar red powder that designates a married woman. Only widows wash the Sindoor away.

In the late 1960s, Jashodaben's parents arranged the marriage to Modi for their teenage daughter. It didn't work and was never consummated. Three years after they were married, as she shyly confided to a journalist, her husband told her she would be better off living her own life. Since then, she has lived like many Asian women, pressed into a role she didn't want, in the shadow of her flamboyant husband. She is an unloved woman.

But Papa Xi loves his wife

While there is no room for love in Indian politics, other top Asian politicians have recognized that a little romance goes over well. A president in love gets brownie points and makes him seem more approachable.

That's a message China's president understands. Xi Jinping openly adores his wife, the glamorous singer Peng Liyuan. She is elegant and beautiful, and had long been a star in the People's Republic by the time her husband stepped into the public eye. Even Russian President Vladimir Putin fell for her charms. At the last Asia summit in Melbourne, he risked bilateral discord when he covered Peng's delicate shoulders with a shawl.

Xi Jinping and Peng Liyuan — Photo: APEC2013

In China the First Lady is not a subject to keep quiet about. On the contrary, she's the jewel that makes the president sparkle in her company. The difference between the two Asian superpowers could not, in this regard, be more evident.

"Mama Peng loves Papa Xi" is a banal pop song accompanied by an amateur expand=1] video clip that has become a huge hit in China. In the clip, Xi is shown as a grinning comic book figure wearing a power overcoat standing next to his chic wife, also portrayed as a comic book figure with her shiny hair piled high on her head. Along with a simple text and a few kitschy photographs, highlights of the video include floating pink hearts and a choir of happy children.

The video made by four young musicians from Henan Province got 22 million clicks in its first week alone. "Their love is like a legend," the songwriter texted. "A country with love is the most powerful." A president in love and his glitzy wife make the Chinese proud.

After decades of inconspicuous presidential wives in Beijing, women who never appeared in public, Xi proudly shows off his wife, and sometimes the pair even wear coordinated outfits. It is of course possible that this public affection is for image reasons only, because Peng is considered a secret weapon to charm the West and she makes the slightly wooden technocrat Xi seem more human. But even if it's only for show, the couple-in-love thing works.

A Filipino Cinderella story

Imelda Marcos, widow of the former Philippines dictator, was never close to the people. On the contrary, she once said, "I must be beautiful so that poor Filipinos have a star to look out at from their slums."

But Imelda Marcos also based her status on love. The "iron butterfly" had long crafted her image of an enchanting Cinderella, the poor little girl from the provinces, the "Rose of Tacloban" who became the most powerful woman in the country. She's an Asian Evita, right down to the musical (the 2010 album Here Lies Love that was produced as a rock musical in 2013 tells her story). However camp, it's a story many Filipinos believe even today.

Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos with U.S. President Ronald Reagan in 1982 — Photo: Reagan Presidential Library

Imelda, who has been widowed for many years and has become lushly voluminous over time, is certainly no longer a butterfly. In an interview last year, she related how she met Ferdinand Marcos, how they fell in love and married all within 11 days. "After 20 minutes, he said to me, "You know what, Miss Romuáldez? With your permission, I'm going to marry you. Marry you right now!""

Imelda then went on to recount how the dictator captured her heart. Even as a young boy, he told her, he'd imagined the future love of his life to be like her. "It's not love at first sight," Ferdinand supposedly whispered in the gorgeous young woman's ear. "I've always loved you!"

The former beauty queen acquired a dubious reputation because of her excesses. Nevertheless, she was the idol of the masses when her husband was still in power. Filipinos loved her flashy glamour and many are still proud of the extravagant former First Lady.

Love in Afghanistan

The looks of the First Lady in Afghanistan, a country 5,600 kilometers northwest of the Philippines, are not important. But even here — where the Taliban forbid women from participating in life outside the home, refused to let girls go to school and even hacked the hands off women caught wearing red fingernail polish — love has moved into the presidential palace along with new First Lady Rula Ghani.

When new Afghanistan President Ashraf Ghani addressed his wife Rula in his inaugural speech, his voice broke with emotion. He thanked his "life partner and beloved wife" for her support. And he said that "Bibi Gul" (her Afghan name) would have political influence. That was a first in the Hindu Kush. Wearing no makeup, her hair covered, eyes shielded by sunglasses, Rula Ghani sat there among all those men and nodded affectionately at her husband.

Rula Ghani — Photo: USAID Afghanistan

In the 10 years he was in office, former President Hamid Karzai hid his wife Zinat behind high walls. She virtually never appeared in public and gave up her career as a medical doctor for her husband.

But Karzai's successor is moving very quickly in the other direction. Rula Ghani, an American Christian of Lebanese heritage, already has her own office in the palace and works actively with refugees. She is also working on the role of women in the country. Her husband has supported her in active public life, doing the opposite of what Nahendra Modi did in India.

Through their cultures and traditions, Asia's First Ladies are more limited than their Western counterparts. A Hillary Clinton is hardly imaginable here. Asian wives are not outspoken, and very few would steal the show from their husbands, even assuming they could. But when they have more room to maneuver, some of the women could change things quite a bit.

The women at the side of Asia's powerful men are — as such women are all over the world — models for the women in their country. In a region of the world where the female population has been marginalized for a particularly long time, progressive First Ladies can inspire many women. And some of them know how to make the best of their roles.

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Art installation "Greetings From Giza" by French artist and photographer JR faces the pyramids of Giza in Egypt

Anne-Sophie Goninet, Jane Herbelin and Bertrand Hauger

👋 你好*

Welcome to Tuesday, where violence erupts after Sudan's military coup, Australia finally gets onboard with climate change goals, and Harrison Ford stars in Raiders of the Lost Credit Card. From Bogota, we also see what the capture of drug kingpin Otoniel means for Colombia, a country long stained by cocaine trafficking.

[*Nĭhǎo - Mandarin Chinese]

💡  SPOTLIGHT

Saving the planet is really a question of dopamine

The elite of the ecologically minded are set to descend on Glasgow next week for the Cop 26 conference on climate change. But beyond debating policy prescriptions, French daily Les Echos explores the role our own brains have on making the right choices for the planet:

Almost every week, a new scientific study alerts us to the degradation of the environment. And yet, we continue not to change anything fundamental in our systems of production and habits of consumption. Are we all suffering from blindness, or poisoned by denial?

In his popular books Le Bug humain (The Human Bug) and Où est le sens? (Where is the Sense?), Sébastien Bohler, a journalist in neuroscience and psychology, provides a much more rational explanation: The mechanism responsible for our propensity to destroy our natural environment is in fact a small, very deep and very primitive structure of our brain called the striatum.

This regulator of human motivation seems to have been programmed to favor behaviors that ensure the survival of the species.

Since the dawn of humanity, gathering information about our environment, feeding ourselves, ensuring the transmission of our genes through sexual intercourse and asserting our social status have all been rewarded with a shot of dopamine, the "pleasure hormone."

Nothing has changed since then; except that, in our society of excess, there is no limit to the satisfaction of these needs. This leads to the overconsumption of food and addictions to everything from sex to social media — which together account for much of the world's destructive agricultural and energy practices.

No matter how much we realize that this is leading to our downfall, we can't help but relapse because we are prisoners of the dopamine pump in the striatum, which cannot be switched off.

According to Bohler, the only way out is to encourage the emergence of new values of sobriety, altruism and slowness. If adopted, these more sustainable notions could be recognized by the striatum as new sources of dopamine reward. But there's the challenge of promoting inspiring stories that infuse them with value.

Take the photo-collage exhibition "J'agis ici... et je m'y colle" ("I'm taking action here... and I'm sticking to it"), a collection of life-size portraits of residents committed to the energy transition, displayed on the walls of the French coastal city of La Rochelle.

Backed by the French National Center for Street Arts, photographer Martin Charpentier may be employing artistic techniques, but he's also tinkering with neuroscience in the process.

Stefano Lupieri / Les Echos

🌎  7 THINGS TO KNOW RIGHT NOW

• Sudan in chaos following military coup: After Sudan's military seized power from the transitional government, defiant anti-coup protesters have returned to the streets of the capital city Khartoum, for a second consecutive day. At least seven people have been killed and 140 injured. Coup leader General Al-Burhan has announced a state of emergency across the country, while the military cut off access to the internet and closed roads, bridges, and Khartoum's airport. Washington condemned the coup and suspended aid, and the U.N. Security Council was expected to discuss Sudan behind closed doors later today.

• Egypt lifts state of emergency in force since 2017: Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, announced the end of a four-year-old state of emergency, undoing powers that had given the government sweeping authority to quash protests, make arrests, search people's homes without warrants, and control everyday life in the most populous Arab country.

• Platforms take down Bolsonaro video linking vaccine and AIDS: Facebook, Instagram and YouTube have removed an anti-vaccine video from their respective platforms posted by Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro. Beyond blocking the video, in which Bolsonaro falsely linked the COVID-19 vaccine with developing AIDS, YouTube went further and suspended the far-right leader for a week.

• COVID update: The U.S. will launch a new travel system on November 8, imposing new vaccine requirements for most foreign national travellers and lifting severe travel restrictions over China, India and much of Europe. Meanwhile, authorities in northern China are reimposing lockdown, and other emergency measures as COVID-19 infections spread to 11 provinces.

• Australia pledges net zero emissions by 2050: As one of the world's largest emitters of greenhouse gases per capita and a major exporter of fossil fuels such as coal, Australia has finally committed to becoming carbon-neutral by 2050. This is a target already adopted by most nations heading to next week's COP26 international climate conference, but that Australia had so far refused to pledge.

• Japanese princess loses royal status over wedding: Japan's Princess Mako married her boyfriend Kei Komuro, giving up her royal status. Under Japanese law, female imperial family members lose their status upon marriage to a "commoner" although male members do not.

Raiders of the Lost Credit Card: A tourist returned the credit card of American actor Harrison Ford, who had lost it in Sicily while shooting scenes for the latest Indiana Jones movie.

🗞️  FRONT PAGE

"Out of control," titles German daily Süddeutsche Zeitung, reporting on the release of a series of articles by a consortium of 17 U.S. news outlets, called the "Facebook Papers," that reinforce whistleblower Frances Haugen's claims that the social media giant is prioritizing profits over the well being of its users and society.

#️⃣  BY THE NUMBERS

$1.01 trillion

After striking a deal to sell 100,000 electric vehicles to car rental firm Hertz, Elon Musk's Tesla has joined Apple, Microsoft, Amazon and Google's Alphabet in the club of companies that have reached a $1 trillion valuation.

📰  STORY OF THE DAY

What the capture of a drug kingpin means for Colombia

While the capture of Otoniel, Colombia's most wanted drug trafficker, made global headlines, Bogotá daily El Espectador writes about the significance of the news for a country that has battled narcotrafficking for decades.

👮 The arrest of the Colombian mobster Dairo Antonio Úsuga David, a.k.a. "Otoniel," is a victory for Colombian intelligence, law-and-order forces and the broader fight against crime. Details of the eight-year-long pursuit of the head of the Gulf Clan, of the tireless and meticulous work, testify to the capabilities that the police and army have managed to develop in the fight against the narco-trafficking that has long been a stain on Colombia.

🇨🇴🇲🇽 Otoniel is responsible for a criminal organization with more than 3,800 members and influence on 12 departments and 128 districts in Colombia (though data from the Bogotá-based Peace and Reconciliation Foundation counts 211 districts). The Gulf Clan sends half the drugs going out of Colombia, and is the main exporter to Mexico. Its ties to the Mexican cartel chief Joaquín "el Chapo" Guzmán are well-documented — and Otoniel had aspired to fill the power vacuum left by Guzmán's capture.

⚖️ Some have observed that the ensuing power vacuum will engender more violence, which is true. But we are, in any case, far from eliminating drug trafficking in Colombia or cutting its tentacles across public life. That shows the limitations of the hard-line response to drugs, when we have seen it is not enough. Still, it is essential in any fight against crime for the state to show its operational capabilities. The message is clear: not even drug overlords are above the law in Colombia.

➡️ Read more on Worldcrunch.com

📣 VERBATIM

"I love Mako. I would like to spend my one life with the person I love."

— Kei Komuro said during a news conference after his wedding with Japan's Princess Mako, the niece of the current emperor and the sister of the likely future sovereign. The princess lost her royal status as a result of her marriage with Komuro, a "commoner."

📸  PHOTO DU JOUR

An art installation "Greetings From Giza" by French artist and photographer JR faces the pyramids of Giza in Egypt, as part of the 2021 exhibition "'Forever Is Now," the first international art exhibition to take place there — Photo: Balkis Press/Abaca/ZUMA

✍️ Newsletter by Anne-Sophie Goninet, Jane Herbelin and Bertrand Hauger

Send all commoner and royal well wishes to Mako and Kei — and let us know what the news looks like from your corner of the world! info@worldcrunch.com

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