Editorial: The Japanese earthquake sparks danger at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, but not panic. A European Viewpoint.
Until the situation is stabilized at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, the threat of a major atomic catastrophe continues to hang over Japan, and the entire world. Is it best to flee Tokyo and head west for Kansai? Or is it wiser to leave Japan altogether and go abroad for fear of a radioactive cloud? Who would not ask themselves these questions?
Given the present circumstances, any country but Japan would already have witnessed massive scenes of panic or looting. In Tokyo, where 40 million people live at a distance of little more than 200 kilometers (124 miles) from the damaged nuclear power plant, people have managed to remain calm and disciplined. Their remarkable dignity and civic sense has stirred the world's admiration: Japan's collective willpower is derived from neither the authorities nor the government, but from the people.
"Safety culture" rules and transparency have not always been a strong suit of local authorities, which is a shame since it is essential element for building public trust. Previous cases of serious nuclear accidents -- such as the one in Tokai-mura (where two people died) or the one in Monju, Tokyo -- have not been fully transparent, either trying to hide information or even provided fake documents in order to protect local administration or national government figures. The Japanese people's dignified reaction to their country's woes should therefore be admired.
It should also serve as a lesson to all those who have seized the Japanese crisis to lambast the entire nuclear industry, in some cases even calling for a complete shutdown. Live footage of the explosion at Fukushima Dai-ichi (the explosion happened at the plant, not inside the reactor, as some have claimed) is certainly poignant, and it has raised questions about the safety of nuclear power plants worldwide. The Three Mile Island and Chernobyl disasters produced a wave of public distrust that, as we all know, has lasted more than a quarter of a century.
So does this new accident mean that the entire nuclear industry is at fault? It is undoubtedly important to remember that considerable progress has been achieved since the Fukushima-Dai-ichi reactors were built 40 years ago, especially in terms of safety and transparency. The third-generation reactors built today are capable of coping with even more dramatic accidents than the ones which currently affect Japan. The voices of nuclear constructors may be inaudible in the midst of the current clamor, but that is no reason for the world to ignore them.
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Once meant to protect the royal family, the century-old law has become a tool for the military-led government in Bangkok to stamp out all dissent. A new report outlines the abuses.
"We need to reform the institution of the monarchy in Thailand. It is the root of the problem." Those words, from Thai student activist Juthatip Sirikan, are a clear expression of the growing youth-led movement that is challenging the legitimacy of the government and demanding deep political changes in the Southeast Asian nation. Yet those very same words could also send Sirikan to jail.
Thailand's Criminal Code 'Lèse-Majesté' Article 112 imposes jail terms for defaming, insulting, or threatening the monarchy, with sentences of three to 15 years. This law has been present in Thai politics since 1908, though applied sparingly, only when direct verbal or written attacks against members of the royal family.
But after the May 2014 military coup d'état, Thailand experienced the first wave of lèse-majesté arrests, prosecutions, and detentions of at least 127 individuals arrested in a much wider interpretation of the law.
The recent report 'Second Wave: The Return of Lèse-Majesté in Thailand', documents how the Thai government has "used and abused Article 112 of the Criminal Code to target pro-democracy activists and protesters in relation to their online political expression and participation in peaceful pro-democracy demonstrations."
Criticism of any 'royal project'
The investigation shows 124 individuals, including at least eight minors, have been charged with lèse-majesté between November 2020 and August 2021. Nineteen of them served jail time. The new wave of charges is cited as a response to the rising pro-democracy protests across Thailand over the past year.
Juthatip Sirikan explains that the law is now being applied in such a broad way that people are not allowed to question government budgets and expenditure if they have any relationship with the royal family, which stifles criticism of the most basic government decision-making since there are an estimated 5,000 ongoing "royal" projects. "Article 112 of lèse-majesté could be the key (factor) in Thailand's political problems" the young activist argues.
In 2020 the Move Forward opposition party questioned royal spending paid by government departments, including nearly 3 billion baht (89,874,174 USD) from the Defense Ministry and Thai police for royal security, and 7 billion baht budgeted for royal development projects, as well as 38 planes and helicopters for the monarchy. Previously, on June 16, 2018, it was revealed that Thailand's Crown Property Bureau transferred its entire portfolio to the new King Maha Vajiralongkorn.
Protestors In Bangkok Call For Political Prisoner Release
Freedom of speech at stake
"Article 112 shuts down all freedom of speech in this country", says Sirikan. "Even the political parties fear to touch the subject, so it blocks most things. This country cannot move anywhere if we still have this law."
The student activist herself was charged with lèse-majesté in September 2020, after simply citing a list of public documents that refer to royal family expenditure. Sirikan comes from a family that has faced the consequences of decades of political repression. Her grandfather, Tiang Sirikhan was a journalist and politician who openly protested against Thailand's involvement in World War II. He was accused of being a Communist and abducted in 1952. According to Sirikhan's family, he was killed by the state.
The new report was conducted by The International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH), Thai Lawyer for Human Rights (TLHR), and Internet Law Reform Dialogue (iLaw). It accuses Thai authorities of an increasingly broad interpretation of Article 112, to the point of "absurdity," including charges against people for criticizing the government's COVID-19 vaccine management, wearing crop tops, insulting the previous monarch, or quoting a United Nations statement about Article 112.
Juthatip Sirikan speaks in front of democracy monument.
Shift to social media
While in the past the Article was only used against people who spoke about the royals, it's now being used as an alibi for more general political repression — which has also spurred more open campaigning to abolish it. Sirikan recounts recent cases of police charging people for spreading paint near the picture of the king during a protest, or even just for having a picture of the king as phone wallpaper.
The more than a century-old law is now largely playing out online, where much of today's protest takes place in Thailand. Sirikan says people are willing to go further on social media to expose information such as how the king intervenes in politics and the monarchy's accumulation of wealth, information the mainstream media rarely reports on them.
Not surprisingly, however, social media is heavily monitored and the military is involved in Intelligence operations and cyber attacks against human rights defenders and critics of any kind. In October 2020, Twitter took down 926 accounts, linked to the army and the government, which promoted themselves and attacked political opposition, and this June, Google removed two Maps with pictures, names, and addresses, of more than 400 people who were accused of insulting the Thai monarchy. "They are trying to control the internet as well," Sirikan says. "They are trying to censor every content that they find a threat".
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