Geopolitics

Meet The Devout Islamist Heading Libya’s Rebel Forces In Benghazi

Allied with the rebel leader in Tripoli linked to Al Qaeda, Ismail Al-Salabi says he has neither a terrorist past nor political ambitions for the future. He does, however, insist that Libya’s new Constitution emphasize Islam -- and has harsh criticism for

Rebels this spring on the front lines near Brega (David Monteleone)
Rebels this spring on the front lines near Brega (David Monteleone)
Laure Stephan

BENGHAZI– With his striped polo shirt, khaki pants and trendy sneakers, Ismail Al-Salabi isn't your typical galabeya-wearing Islamist. His beard is the only outward connection to the cliché. "But it's not always the same length!" he insists. He welcomes us with a box of dates, but like most Islamists, will not shake the hand of this female journalist.

The 34-year-old leader of the "February 17 Katiba," a Benghazi armed group, has just returned from the front lines. He's one of many Islamists who fight under the leadership of the National Transitional Council (NTC). "It's through our blood that the NTC was created," Al-Salabi declares.

He sees himself as autonomous, and refuses to be associated with any Islamist group. "The February 17 Katiba (named after the starting date of the Libyan insurrection) isn't an Islamist group. Many young people joined us from different backgrounds."

As an attempt to prove his respectability, he says he met celebrity-philosopher Bernard-Henry Levy during his first trip to Libya back in March, not long before Levy negotiated Paris' recognition of the NTC. Al-Salabi also says one of his envoys, Mustafa Saghisli, was received at the French Presidential palace, also in March.

Among his 5,000 men are several former members of the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG), which has been recognized by Al Qaeda. "They were thrown in jail under Gaddafi's rule because they spoke out against poverty, corruption and the lack of institutions," says Al-Salabi. He himself denies ever being part of the LIFG, or going to Afghanistan with radicals like Abdel Hakim Belhadj, Tripoli's new military chief.

Jailhouse conversion?

As he's speaking in his headquarters, a dozen young men listen carefully. Al-Salabi is widely respected for being against Gaddafi from the start. He was still a 21-year-old math student, when he was put in jail in 1997 for 6 years. The reason for his arrest: being part of an Islamic network and housing fugitives wanted by the regime. "Accusations of Islamism were just an excuse to send people to jail," he says. "I wasn't religious at all at the time, which didn't sit well with my conservative family. I found God in jail."

But the Benghazi rumor mill dates his Islamist allegiance back to before his arrest. In jail, the future military chief met two brothers of Abdel Hakim Belhadj. He says he didn't meet Belhadj himself until March 2011. Once released, the young men started discretely opposing the regime through social actions like visiting inmates in eastern Libya, campaigning for the protection of "virtue," or the cleanliness of the streets. "We started the revolution before it even happened," he says. The February 2011 insurrection gave Islamists the opportunity to take up arms against a hated regime in what Al-Salabi calls "the jihad for freedom."

He laughs off any question about his possible ties to Al Qaeda. "We are different from them and we don't share their ideas," he says, though he justifies the use of violence against "totalitarian regimes' in Arab countries. "If people in Libya sympathize with Al Qaeda, its their choice," he says.

With the NTC, led by Prime Minister Mahmoud Jibril, taking over Tripoli, and political transition in the works, Islamists want to make their voice heard. As a sign of the potential internal fractures ahead within rebel ranks, Al-Salabi is very critical toward the NTC leadership, notably those he says who "were sitting comfortably in their sofas during the fighting, whose agendas are set by foreigners or who make deals with corrupt members of the Gaddafi regime."

He has several requirements before his rebels give up arms: "Bringing back stability, drafting a new Constitution that recognizes the importance of religion, creating a strong national army and putting the country in good hands." He also wants combatants who wish to do so, to be part of "the core of the new army." He has no political ambition: "When the revolution is secured, I will go back to my small business and my Islamic studies."

In Benghazi, the secular youth is trying to push for a more open society after the Gaddafi era. They worry that rivalries between Islamists and liberals will get out of hand. On August 28, they gathered in a Benghazi square, by the port, where Libyans meet daily. That night, the crowd, a mix of people with very different backgrounds chanted in support of Abdel Hakim Belhadj. Secular Libyans are hoping they were celebrating the man who conquered Tripoli rather than the former LIFG leader.

Read the original article in French

Photo - Davide Monteleone/Contrasto

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Economy

Air Next: How A Crypto Scam Collapsed On A Single Spelling Mistake

It is today a proven fraud, nailed by the French stock market watchdog: Air Next resorted to a full range of dubious practices to raise money but the simplest of errors exposed the scam and limited the damage to investors.

Sky is the crypto limit

Laurence Boisseau

PARIS — Air Next promised to use blockchain technology to revolutionize passenger transport. Should we have read something into its name? In fact, the company was talking a lot of hot air from the start. Air Next turned out to be a scam, with a fake website, false identities, fake criminal records, counterfeited bank certificates, aggressive marketing … real crooks. Thirty-five employees recruited over the summer ranked among its victims, not to mention the few investors who put money in the business.

Maud (not her real name) had always dreamed of working in a start-up. In July, she spotted an ad on Linkedin and was interviewed by videoconference — hardly unusual in the era of COVID and teleworking. She was hired very quickly and signed a permanent work contract. She resigned from her old job, happy to get started on a new adventure.


Others like Maud fell for the bait. At least ten senior managers, coming from major airlines, airports, large French and American corporations, a former police officer … all firmly believed in this project. Some quit their jobs to join; some French expats even made their way back to France.

Share capital of one billion 

The story began last February, when Air Next registered with the Paris Commercial Court. The new company stated it was developing an application that would allow the purchase of airline tickets by using cryptocurrency, at unbeatable prices and with an automatic guarantee in case of cancellation or delay, via a "smart contract" system (a computer protocol that facilitates, verifies and oversees the handling of a contract).

The firm declared a share capital of one billion euros, with offices under construction at 50, Avenue des Champs Elysées, and a president, Philippe Vincent ... which was probably a usurped identity.

Last summer, Air Next started recruiting. The company also wanted to raise money to have the assets on hand to allow passenger compensation. It organized a fundraiser using an ICO, or "Initial Coin Offering", via the issuance of digital tokens, transacted in cryptocurrencies through the blockchain.

While nothing obliged him to do so, the company owner went as far as setting up a file with the AMF, France's stock market regulator which oversees this type of transaction. Seeking the market regulator stamp is optional, but when issued, it gives guarantees to those buying tokens.

screenshot of the typo that revealed the Air Next scam

The infamous typo that brought the Air Next scam down

compta online

Raising Initial Coin Offering 

Then, on Sept. 30, the AMF issued an alert, by way of a press release, on the risks of fraud associated with the ICO, as it suspected some documents to be forgeries. A few hours before that, Air Next had just brought forward by several days the date of its tokens pre-sale.

For employees of the new company, it was a brutal wake-up call. They quickly understood that they had been duped, that they'd bet on the proverbial house of cards. On the investor side, the CEO didn't get beyond an initial fundraising of 150,000 euros. He was hoping to raise millions, but despite his failure, he didn't lose confidence. Challenged by one of his employees on Telegram, he admitted that "many documents provided were false", that "an error cost the life of this project."

What was the "error" he was referring to? A typo in the name of the would-be bank backing the startup. A very small one, at the bottom of the page of the false bank certificate, where the name "Edmond de Rothschild" is misspelled "Edemond".

Finding culprits 

Before the AMF's public alert, websites specializing in crypto-assets had already noted certain inconsistencies. The company had declared a share capital of 1 billion euros, which is an enormous amount. Air Next's CEO also boasted about having discovered bitcoin at a time when only a few geeks knew about cryptocurrency.

Employees and investors filed a complaint. Failing to find the general manager, Julien Leclerc — which might also be a fake name — they started looking for other culprits. They believe that if the Paris Commercial Court hadn't registered the company, no one would have been defrauded.

Beyond the handful of victims, this case is a plea for the implementation of more secure procedures, in an increasingly digital world, particularly following the pandemic. The much touted ICO market is itself a victim, and may find it hard to recover.

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