Geopolitics

ISIS And Twitter: Don't Shoot The Messenger

Governments are taking Twitter to task for inadvertently helping jihadists "recruit, incite and horrify." But they're forgetting what a valuable law enforcement resource the platform is too.

A suspended ISIS-linked Twitter account
A suspended ISIS-linked Twitter account
Nashwa Hussein Aly

CAIRO — While jihadists from the Islamic State (ISIS) also use services such as YouTube, Facebook, Instagram and even Askme.com, their social media platform of choice seems to be Twitter, perhaps because it allows them to easily direct traffic to some of the other platforms.

Following the White House Counter Violent Extremism Summit, reports abounded that the U.S. government is unhappy with Twitter and wants it to act more aggressively against terrorists by shutting down clear incitements to violence. Soon thereafter, the French interior minister also announced that his country wants Twitter, Facebook and Google to remove terrorist propaganda when authorities alert them to it.

But imagine this for a second: A U.S. government law enforcement agency asks Twitter to keep up an account of a jihadist they are trying to track; at the same time a French law enforcement agency asks Twitter to take down the same account — while a law enforcement agency in a third country requests the user information for that account. For legal reasons, Twitter staff are not able to share the fact that there are two other governments working on the same case with each of these agencies. Where does this leave Twitter in the eyes of each of these governments? Exactly where it is today — i.e. with the perception that its response is insufficient.

Apart from the fact that asking Twitter and its tech peers to do more in the fight against terrorists seems to ignore potential scenarios such as the one above, it also seems to overlook several other equally important issues in this fight.

First, the use of trending hashtags on Twitter for jihadist recruitment shows account suspension might not be useful in this fight. There will always be trending hashtags, and Twitter users — jihadist or not — will always jump on these hashtags to share content they want to go viral. After all, that is an important part of what Twitter is about as a product, isn't it?

Secondly, tweets by ISIS sympathizers provide a valuable window into the minds of people like Mehdi Masroor (otherwise known as @ShamiWitness), who might not be on the ground with ISIS fighters in Syria, Iraq or some other country, but for some reason finds their ideology appealing and their "cause" worthy of support and applause. Such users should be — and probably are — regarded by law enforcement agencies as a wealth of data to be studied, analyzed and used in the psychological profiling of potential terrorists, and in turn in the prevention of their recruitment. In short they're as important in dismantling ISIS as airstrikes and cutting financial resources.

Maj. General Imad Zuhairi of Samarra operational command injured,Mutassim subdistrict under #IS control pic.twitter.com/hSuZXNRc1Y

— Shami Witness (@ShamiWitness) December 8, 2014

Third, actual ISIS fighters tweeting about their activities, thoughts, sharing pictures and videos that show terrain and surrounding geography is useful for law enforcement and intelligence communities — and even to U.S. and coalition military forces, in more ways that can be enumerated here. Suspending these accounts temporarily solves the stress from the heinous content that they might tweet, but only until new accounts are created.

More importantly, confining the fight against ISIS to the limits of governmental pressure on tech companies not only makes these companies decision-makers in a context where they should not be, but also fails to consider the masses of people worldwide affected by terrorism. The people who also share and must shoulder some of the burden of defeating ISIS and its likes through education, sharing knowledge and establishing cross-cultural programs, among other things. Perhaps those kinds of efforts should be the nexus for governmental and tech giants collaboration, rather than asking the latter to police content — which is unfeasible from a long-term perspective.

Tech giants should and do cooperate with governments within legal requirements. But the truth is that although it might be achieving results on the ground, through the coalition airstrikes on ISIS" strongholds in Iraq and Syria, the U.S. government still has not figured out how to win the "marketing war" against ISIS.

So, the next time the U.S. or another government starts blaming tech companies for insufficient responses, they should stop for a second and consider what they themselves have or have not done to perfect their counter-ISIS propaganda strategy and whether or not their tactics have covered issues of argumentum ad passiones, subversive religious arguments, or even the simplistic notion of the "adrenaline rush." After all, it is not always the lack of economic opportunity that drives recruits to join ISIS.

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Future

How China Flipped From Tech Copycat To Tech Leader

Long perceived as a country chasing Western tech, China's business and technological innovations are now influencing the rest of the world. Still lagging on some fronts, the future is now up for grabs.

At the World Semiconductor Conference in Nanjing, China, on June 9

SIPA Asia/ZUMA
Emmanuel Grasland

BEIJING — China's tech tycoons have fallen out of favor: Jack Ma (Alibaba), Colin Huang (Pinduoduo), Richard Liu (Tencent) and Zhang Yiming (ByteDance) have all been pressured by Beijing to leave their jobs or step back from a public role. Their time may be coming to an end, but the legacy remains exceptional. Under their reign, China has become a veritable window to the global future of technology.

TikTok is the perfect example. Launched in 2016, the video messaging app has been downloaded over two billion times worldwide. It has passed the 100-million active user mark in the United States. Thanks to TikTok's success, ByteDance, its parent company, has reached an exceptional level of influence on the internet.


For a long time, the West viewed China's digital ecosystem as a cheap imitation of Silicon Valley. The European and American media described the giants of the Asian superpower as the "Chinese Google" or "Chinese Amazon." But the tables have turned.

No Western equivalent to WeChat

The Asian superpower has forged cutting-edge business models that do not exist elsewhere. It is impossible to find a Western equivalent to the WeChat super-app (1.2 billion users), which is used for shopping as much as for making a medical appointment or obtaining credit.

The flow of innovation is now changing direction.

The roles have actually reversed: In a recent article, Les Echos describes the California-based social network IRL, as a "WeChat of the Western world."

Grégory Boutté, digital and customer relations director at the multinational luxury group Kering, explains, "The Chinese digital ecosystem is incredibly different, and its speed of evolution is impressive. Above all, the flow of innovation is now changing direction."

This is illustrated by the recent creation of "live shopping" events in France, which are hosted by celebrities and taken from a concept already popular in China.

10,000 new startups per day

There is an explosion of this phenomenon in the digital sphere. Rachel Daydou, Partner & China General Manager of the consulting firm Fabernovel in Shanghai, says, "With Libra, Facebook is trying to create a financial entity based on social media, just as WeChat did with WeChat Pay. Facebook Shop looks suspiciously like WeChat's mini-programs. Amazon Live is inspired by Taobao Live and YouTube Shopping by Douyin, the Chinese equivalent of TikTok."

In China, it is possible to go to fully robotized restaurants or to give a panhandler some change via mobile payment. Your wallet is destined to be obsolete because your phone can read restaurant menus and pay for your meal via a QR Code.

The country uses shared mobile chargers the way Europeans use bicycles, and is already testing electric car battery swap stations to avoid 30 minutes of recharging time.

Michael David, chief omnichannel director at LVMH, says, "The Chinese ecosystem is permanently bubbling with innovation. About 10,000 start-ups are created every day in the country."

China is also the most advanced country in the electric car market. With 370 models at the end of 2020, it had an offering that was almost twice as large as Europe's, according to the International Energy Agency.

Photo of a phone's screen displaying the logo of \u200bChina's super-app WeChat

China's super-app WeChat

Omar Marques/SOPA Images/ZUMA

The whole market runs on tech

Luca de Meo, CEO of French automaker Renault, said in June that China is "ahead of Europe in many areas, whether it's electric cars, connectivity or autonomous driving. You have to be there to know what's going on."

As a market, China is also a source of technological inspiration for Western companies, a world leader in e-commerce, solar, mobile payments, digital currency and facial recognition. It has the largest 5G network, with more than one million antennas up and running, compared to 400,000 in Europe.

Self-driving cars offer an interesting point of divergence between China and the West.

Just take the number of connected devices (1.1 billion), the time spent on mobile (six hours per day) and, above all, the magnitude of data collected to deploy and improve artificial intelligence algorithms faster than in Europe or the United States.

The groundbreaking field of self-driving cars offers an interesting point of divergence between China and the West. Artificial intelligence guru Kai-Fu Lee explains that China believes that we should teach the highway to speak to the car, imagining new services and rethinking cities to avoid cars crossing pedestrians, while the West does not intend to go that far.

Still lagging in some key sectors

There are areas where China is still struggling, such as semiconductors. Despite a production increase of nearly 50% per year, the country produces less than 40% of the chips it consumes, according to official data. This dependence threatens its ambitions in artificial intelligence, telecoms and autonomous vehicles. Chinese manufacturers work with an engraving fineness of 28 nm or more, far from those of Intel, Samsung or TSMC. They are unable to produce processors for high-performance PCs.

China's aerospace industry is also lagging behind the West. There are also no Chinese players among the top 20 life science companies on the stock market and there are doubts surrounding the efficacy of Sinovac and Sinopharm's COVID-19 vaccines. As of 2019, the country files more patents per year than the U.S., but far fewer are converted into marketable products.

Beijing knows its weaknesses and is working to eliminate them. Adopted in March, the nation's 14th five-year plan calls for a 7% annual increase in R&D spending between now and 2025, compared with 12% under the previous plan. Big data aside, that is basic math anyone can understand.

https://www.lesechos.fr/idees-debats/editos-analyses/la-chine-est-desormais-une-fenetre-sur-notre-futur-1347064
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