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Venezuela

Hugo Chavez Still Can't Breathe On His Own

AFP, EL NACIONAL, EL UNIVERSAL (Venezuela)

Worldcrunch

CARACAS- Venezuelan President, Hugo Chavez continues to suffer from chronic respiratory difficulties since his return to the country from Cuba earlier this week.

The news came in a televised statement from Venezuelan Minister for Communications Ernesto Villegas, which was the first information from the government on Chavez's health since he returned from cancer treatment in Cuba on Monday.

“The president continues to hold close to Christ with a great will to live and the greatest discipline in the treatment of his health,” Villegas said in the Thursday statement.

Villegas noted that Chavez has a tracheal cannula, which temporarily prevents him from speaking, but is awake and alert, reports the AFP.

According to Villegas, the post-operative respiratory problems have been persisting as cancer treatment continues, but otherwise there are no significant adverse effects, writes El Universal.

Villegas thanked the support that has come from the Venezuelan people and criticized the “disrespectful gestures” that had come from the political opposition, writes El Nacional.

Chavez, 58, returned to Venezuela after a two-month stint in Cuba to treat a recurrence of cancer. The first photos of him after his surgery were released one week ago and he announced his surprise return to the country on Monday via his twitter account.

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Society

Kleptomania, How A "Women's Pathology" Was Built On Gender And Class Bias

Between 1880 and 1930, there was a significant rise in thefts in department stores, mostly committed by women from the middle and upper classes. This situation brought with it the establishment of a new pathology: kleptomania. A century later, feminist historians have given new meaning to the practice as a protest against the social structures and oppressions of capitalism and patriarchy.

Photo of a hand in a pocket

A hand in a pocket

Julia Amigo

Kleptomania is defined as the malicious and curious propensity for theft. The legal language tends to specify that the stolen objects are not items of necessity; medically, it is explained as an uncontrollable impulse.

What seems clear is that kleptomania is a highly enigmatic condition and one of the few mental disorders that comes from the pathologization of a crime, which makes it possible to use it as a legal defense. It differs from the sporadic theft of clothing, accessories, or makeup (shoplifting) as the kleptomaniac's impulse is irresistible.

Studies have shown that less than one percent of the population suffers from kleptomania, being much more common among women (although determining exact numbers is very difficult).

The psychiatric disorders manual, DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) has included kleptomania since 1962. Previously, it had already received attention from, among others, Sigmund Freud. Like nymphomania or hysteria, kleptomania became an almost exclusively female diagnosis linked to the biology of women's bodies and an “inability” to resist uncontrollable desire.

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