Geopolitics

For Libya's Tripoli, A Second Revolutionary Spring Is Just Beginning

As Libya marks the first anniversary of the Benghazi uprising, revelers in Tripoli find themselves in a state of limbo – happy to be free from Muammar Gaddafi, confused by the sudden changes and uncertain about how reconciliation will play out.

Richard Werly

TRIPOLI -- From his office overlooking the sea, Hamid can see three business buildings built on Muammar Gaddafi's orders as symbols of the country's modernity. The nearly empty skyscrapers taunt the rest of the capital and its lack of infrastructure, its paltry public transport and its ancient colonial-era sewage system. Off to the other side is the Mediterranean, which is somewhat hidden now by a belt of trash and haphazard constructions - evidence that for now, at least, no real state authority has risen to replace the defeated dictator.

The city, however, is safe. Despite all the electronic equipment in Hamid's office, the doors remain wide open and there are no guards. Some employees came in to work despite the extra holiday, which was scheduled to mark the anniversary of Benghazi's uprising on Feb. 17, 2011. "There's a lot we have to learn, and we have to learn it fast," says Hamid.

Following the anniversary celebrations, Tripoli woke up happy and, most importantly, free. These are days many here thought they'd never have a chance to experience.

In the heart of the medina, or old town, cafés are still empty. A police car from the fallen regime has been repainted in revolution colors. A policeman is talking to a group of fighters from Benghazi who spent the night screaming the name of their town, the hotbed of the Libyan uprising.

Hamid is confident reconciliation will come with time, but he still has more questions than answers. "Our spring is unfortunately one of ignorance," he says. "I see the rift among my employees or in my family every day. Among those over 40, many were broken by Gaddafi. They didn't have a choice but to cooperate with the system."

A makeshift makeover

Behind the thick walls of the medina, on which Gaddafi paraded and called Benghazi insurgents "rats," information spreads by word of mouth. Newspapers are still struggling for credibility. The day's story is about the fate of Saadi Gaddafi, one of Muammar's surviving sons. From Niger, where he fled, he has once again called for a counter-revolution.

Mahmud, a jeweler, makes fun of him, describing Saadi as "mentally ill." An old man sitting in a café explains how the Gaddafis "crushed anyone who got near them." The former dictator's image has been graffitied across the city and remains a symbol of Tripoli's very long ordeal.

Hadiah teaches art. Her house near the Regatta seaside resort complex, where the regime used to keep foreigners, is undergoing a makeover. The goal is to take advantage of the transition period – when permits aren't required - to revamp, breakdown or build.

Tripoli, despite its glorious past as a roman city symbolized by Marcus-Aurelius' arch outside the medina, doesn't look like a city with a lot of history. Houses in Hadiah's neighborhood line up one after the other with no apparent urban planning. Nor are there walls to ensure privacy for families, especially women.

At the bottom of the stairs in Hadiah's house, three empty boxes of AK-47 ammunition are a reminder of the fighting that took place there. Young men from Hadiah's Berber family arrived in Tripoli on Aug. 20 from Nalut on the Tunisian border, armed and ready to fight, while others from Zintan and Misrata besieged Bab al-Aziziya, forcing Gaddafi and his entourage to flee to Sirte, their stronghold, where the dictator would eventually be caught and executed in late October.

An arsenal in every house

Since then, Tripoli residents are discovering what normal life is like and what they've been missing all these years. Customs have been reactived but no longer operate on orders from the secret service or serve the interests of hidden allegiances. Second hand cars, mostly from Switzerland, are no longer stuck in the port. Neighbors who used to ignore each other out of fear now communicate openly.

"There's a childish side to Libyans. You don't feel the fear of vendettas, or infighting between militias that foreigners are worried about," says Abdulhamid el-Assadi, a local television star. "Tribal affiliations aren't as strong here as they are in the desert. We just want to enjoy life after 42 years…"

Still, there's cause for concern – particularly that violence could erupt between "Katibas," the revolutionary brigades that stayed on to ensure the safety of the capital. The long nights of relatively peaceful partying on Feb. 17 and 18 proved skeptics wrong – at least for now. Things could change, however, once the difficult task of redistributing power and the nation's oil wealth has begun in earnest.

"We don't know what regional or political group will win," says Hamid. "Everything is happening behind the scenes, with no transparency. But if people don't believe in their new leaders, it could all go very wrong."

After all, every house, every neighborhood is an arsenal. In the traditional neighborhood of Suk Juma, members of the Bakkush family proudly show their war prizes taken from the fallen regime's military warehouses: 10 AK-47's, as many guns and 3 RPGs. Tripoli's spring has just begun.

Read more from Le Temps in French

Photo - EU Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection

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food / travel

The True Horrors Behind 7 Haunted Locations Around The World

With Halloween arriving, we have dug up the would-be ghosts of documented evil and bloodshed from the past.

Inside Poveglia Island's abandoned asylum

Laure Gautherin and Carl-Johan Karlsson

When Hallows Eve was first introduced as a Celtic festival some 2,000 years ago, bonfires and costumes were seen as a legitimate way to ward off ghosts and evil spirits. Today of course, with science and logic being real ghostbusters, spine-chilling tales of haunted forests, abandoned asylums and deserted graveyards have rather become a way to add some mystery and suspense to our lives.

And yet there are still spooky places around the world that have something more than legend attached to them. From Spain to Uzbekistan and Australia, these locations prove that haunting lore is sometimes rooted in very real, and often terrible events.

Shahr-e Gholghola, City of Screams - Afghanistan

photo of  ruins of Shahr-e Gholghola,

The ruins of Shahr-e Gholghola, the City of Screams, in Afghanistan

Dai He/Xinhua via ZUMA Wire


According to locals, ghosts from this ancient royal citadel located in the Valley of Bamyan, 150 miles northwest of Kabul, have been screaming for 800 years. You can hear them from miles away, at twilight, when they relive their massacre.

In the spring 1221, the fortress built by Buddhist Ghorids in the 6th century became the theater of the final battle between Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, last ruler of the Khwarezmian Empire, and the Mongol Horde led by Genghis Khan. It is said that Khan's beloved grandson, Mutakhan, had been killed on his mission to sack Bamyan. To avenge him, the Mongol leader went himself and ordered to kill every living creature in the city, children included.

The ruins today bear the name of Shahr-e Gholghola, meaning City of Screams or City of Sorrows. The archeological site, rich in Afghan history, is open to the public and though its remaining walls stay quiet during the day, locals say that the night brings the echoes of fear and agony. Others claim the place comes back to life eight centuries ago, and one can hear the bustle of the city and people calling each other.

Gettysburg, Civil War battlefield - U.S.

photo of rocks and trees in Gettysburg

View of the battlefields from Little Round Top, Gettysburg, PA, USA

Unsplash/@nemo23


Even ghosts non-believers agree there is something eerie about Gettysbury. The city in the state of Pennsylvania is now one of the most popular destinations in the U.S. for spirits and paranormal activities sight-seeing; and many visitors report they witness exactly what they came for: sounds of drums and gunshots, spooky encounters and camera malfunctions in one specific spot… just to name a few!

The Battle of Gettysburg, for which President Abraham Lincoln wrote his best known public address, is considered a turning point in the Civil War that led to the Union's victory. It lasted three days, from July 1st to July 3rd, 1863, but it accounts for the worst casualties of the entire conflict, with 23,000 on the Union side (3,100 men killed) and 28,000 for the Confederates (including 3,900 deaths). Thousands of soldiers were buried on the battlefield in mass graves - without proper rites, legend says - before being relocated to the National Military Park Cemetery for the Unionists.

Since then, legend has it, their restless souls wander, unaware the war has ended. You can find them everywhere, on the battlefield or in the town's preserved Inns and hotels turned into field hospitals back then.

Belchite, Civil War massacre - Spain

photo of sunset of old Belchite

Old Belchite, Spain

Belchite Town Council


Shy lost souls wandering and briefly appearing in front of visitors, unexplainable forces attracting some to specific places of the town, recorded noises of planes, gunshots and bombs, like forever echoes of a drama which left an open wound in Spanish history…

That wound, still unhealed, is the Spanish Civil War; and at its height in 1937, Belchite village, located in the Zaragoza Province in the northeast of Spain, represented a strategic objective of the Republican forces to take over the nearby capital city of Zaragoza.

Instead of being a simple step in their operation, it became the field of an intense battle opposing the loyalist army and that of General Francisco Franco's. Between August 24 and September 6, more than 5,000 people were killed, including half of Belchite's population. The town was left in rubble. As a way to illustrate the Republicans' violence, Franco decided to leave the old town in ruins and build a new Belchite nearby. All the survivors were relocated there, but they had to wait 15 years for it to be complete.

If nothing particular happens in new Belchite, home to around 1,500 residents, the remains of old Belchite offer their share of chilling ghost stories. Some visitors say they felt a presence, someone watching them, sudden change of temperatures and strange sounds. The ruins of the old village have been used as a film set for Terry Gilliam's The Adventures of Baron Munchausen - with the crew reporting the apparition of two women dressed in period costumes - and Guillermo del Toro's Pan's Labyrinth. And in October 1986, members of the television program "Cuarta Dimensión" (the 4th dimension) spent a night in Belchite and came back with some spooky recordings of war sounds.

Gur Emir, a conquerer’s mausoleum - Uzbekistan

photo of Gur Emir (Tomb of Timur) i

Gur Emir (Tomb of Timur) in Samarkand, Uzbekistan

Chris Bradley/Design Pics via ZUMA Wire


The news echoed through the streets and bazaars of Samarkand: "The Russian expedition will open the tomb of Tamerlane the Great. It will be our curse!" It was June 1941, and a small team of Soviet researchers began excavations in the Gur-Emir mausoleum in southeastern Uzbekistan.

The aim was to prove that the remains in the tomb did in fact belong to Tamerlane — the infamous 14th-century conqueror and first ruler of the Timurid dynasty who some historians say massacred 1% of the world's population in 1360.

Still, on June 20, despite protests from local residents and Muslim clergy, Tamerlame's tomb was cracked open — marked with the inscription: "When I Rise From the Dead, The World Shall Tremble."

Only two days later, Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union, with the people of Samarkand linking it to the disturbing of Tamerlane's peace. Amid local protests, the excavation was immediately wrapped up and the remains of the Turkish/Mongol conqueror were sent to Moscow. The turning point in the war came with the victory in the Battle of Stalingrad — only a month after a superstitious Stalin ordered the return of Tamerlane's remains to Samarkand where the former emperor was re-buried with full honors.

Gamla Stan, a royal massacre - Sweden

a photo of The red house of Gamla Stan, Stockholm, Sweden

The red house of Gamla Stan, Stockholm, Sweden

Unsplash/@hkblind


After Danish King Kristian II successfully invaded Sweden and was anointed King in November 1520, the new ruler called Swedish leaders to join for festivities at the royal palace in Stockholm. At dusk, after three days of wine, beer and spectacles, Danish soldiers carrying lanterns and torches entered the great hall and imprisoned the gathered nobles who were considered potential opponents of the Danish king. In the days that followed, 92 people were swiftly sentenced to death, and either hanged or beheaded on Stortorget, the main square in Gamla Stan (Old Town).

Until this day, the Stockholm Bloodbath is considered one of the most brutal events in Scandinavian history, and some people have reported visions of blood flowing across the cobblestoned square in early November. A little over a century later, a red house on the square was rebuilt as a monument for the executed — fitted with 92 white stones for each slain man. Legend has it that should one of the stones be removed, the ghost of the represented will rise from the dead and haunt the streets of Stockholm for all eternity.

Port Arthur, gruesome prison - Australia

a photo of ort Arthur Prison Settlement, Tasmania, Australia

Port Arthur Prison Settlement, Tasmania, Australia

Flickr/Eli Duke


During its 47-year history as a penal settlement, Port Arthur in southern Tasmania earned a reputation as one of the most notorious prisons in the British Empire. The institution — known for a brutal slavery system and punishment of the most hardened criminals sent from the motherland— claimed the lives of more than 1,000 inmates until its closure in 1877.

Since then, documented stories have spanned the paranormal gamut: poltergeist prisoners terrorizing visitors, weeping children roaming the port and tourists running into a weeping 'lady in blue' (apparently the spirit of a woman who died in childbirth). The museum even has an 'incidence form' ready for anyone wanting to report an otherworldly event.

Poveglia Island, plague victims - Italy

a photo of Poveglia Island, Italy

Poveglia Island, Italy

Mirco Toniolo/ROPI via ZUMA Press


Located off the coast of Venice and Lido, Poveglia sadly reunites all the classical elements of a horror movie: plagues, mass burial ground and mental institute (from the 1920's).

During the bubonic plague and other subsequent pandemics, the island served as a quarantine station for the sick and anyone showing any signs of what could be Black Death contamination. Some 160,000 victims are thought to have died there and the seven acres of land became a mass burial ground so full that it is said that human ash makes up more than 50% of Poveglia's soil.

In 1922 a retirement home for the elderly — used as a clandestine mental institution— opened on the island and with it a fair amount of rumors involving torture of patients. The hospital and consequently the whole island was closed in 1968, leaving all the dead trapped off-land.

Poveglia's terrifying past earned it the nickname of 'Island of Ghosts'. Despite being strictly off-limits to visitors, the site has been attracting paranormal activity hunters looking for the apparition of lost and angry souls. The island would be so evil that some locals say that when an evil person dies, he wakes up in Poveglia, another kind of hell.

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