Geopolitics

Christianity In Muslim World: Notre Dame D'Afrique Basilica Reopens

Algeria's Our Lady of Africa was long associated with French colonialism, until it became a symbol of interfaith tolerance

ALGIERS - Algerians call it "Madame Afrique," an imposing cathedral that has symbolized both the evils of colonialism and the possibilities of tolerance and brotherhood. Now, the Our Lady of Africa (Notre Dame d'Afrique) basilica offers a sign of renewal of its own, having been reconsecrated on December 13 after an extensive, three-year restoration effort.

The majestic Roman Catholic cathedral, built in the mid-19th century overlooking the Bay of Algiers, was long seen by Algerians as a reminder of the French conquest of their country. French-born Cardinal Charles Martial Allemand Lavigerie, the Archbishop of Carthage and Algiers and primate of Africa in the late 1800s, had once proclaimed that Notre Dame d'Afrique was proof of "the victory of the cross over the crescent."

Our Lady of Africa was the vision of Monsignor Louis-Antoine Pavy, who served as Bishop of Algiers from 1846 to 1866. Pavy was said to want a shrine that could stand alongside the Fourviere cathedral in Lyon, and commissioned it in a style inspired by Roman, Byzantine and Mozarabic influences.

Over time, and with the departure of the colonial regime and the promotion of interfaith dialogue, the basilica came to be viewed as a place of tolerance and brotherhood. Even during the years of Islamist terror in the 1990s when 18 Catholic priests were murdered, the church, nestled in the heart of a poor Muslim neighborhood, was not targeted. In more recent years, some 100,000 visitors, including many Muslims, would come annually to see the architectural and religious landmark, which has written on the colorful tiled apse: "Pray for us and the Muslims."

The church suffered major damage in the earthquake that struck Boumerdes in 2003. The restoration project first outlined in 2003 by then-Algiers Archbishop Henri Tessier, came at a price tag of some 5 million euros, with contributions from the Paca regional government, the municipal government of Bouches-du-Rhone, the City of Marseille, the Algerian and French governments, as well as several individual patrons and donations collected by current Algiers Archbishop Ghaleb Bader.

The prefecture of Algiers assigned the project to a company in the French city of Avignon, which agreed to train 28 young Algerians in restoration practices. The job required not only a face-lift to the classical monument, but extensive reinforcement to guard against future earthquakes. The steeples and bell tower were dismantled, stone-by-stone, and reassembled with new stainless steel frames. The brick arches of the nave, the dome and the apse have all been strengthened using strips of carbon.

The basilica now has 46 windows, which were installed by the 19th century master glassmaker Guilbert Auel, from Avignon. After being hit by a bomb on April 16, 1943, the windows were once again restored to their full beauty. This time, though, restoration artists had to import the glass from the masters of Marseille, and bring them back to Algeria.

At the ceremony reopening the cathedral, French and Algerian politicians gathered to marvel at what one called "an exceptional human construction."

Monsignor Bader called the restoration project a "symbol of cooperation between Algeria and French, between the north and south shores of the Mediterranean. With the Algerian Minister for Religious Affairs looking on, Bader called for "a fraternal Algeria, rich in its diversity."

Read original article in French.

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Society

Dutch Cities Have Been Secretly Probing Mosques Since 2013

Revelations of a nationally funded clandestine operation within 10 municipalities in the Netherlands to keep tabs on mosques and Muslim organizations after a rise in radicalization eight years ago.

The Nasser mosque in Veenendaal, one of the mosques reportedly surveilled

Meike Eijsberg

At least ten Dutch towns and cities have secretly used a private agency to probe mosques and other local religious organizations, Amsterdam-based daily het NRC reports in an exclusive investigation.

The clandestine operation — funded by NCTV, the National Security Services, the Netherlands' leading counter-terrorism agency — was prompted by the social unrest and uncertainty following multiple terror attacks in 2013, and a rise in Islamic radicalization.


The NCTV, which advises and financially supports municipalities in countering radicalization, put the municipalities in touch with Nuance by Training and Advice (Nuance door Trainingen en Advies, NTA), a private research agency based in Deventer, Netherlands. Among the institutions targeted by the investigations, which came at a cost of circa 500,000 euros, were the Al Mouahidin mosque in the central Dutch town of Ede, and the Nasser mosque east of the city of Utrecht, according to NRC.

Photo of people standing on prayer mats inside a Dutch mosque

Praying inside a Dutch mosque.

Hollandse-Hoogte/ZUMA

Broken trust in Islamic community

Unlike public officials, the private agency can enter the mosques to clandestinely research the situation. In this case, the agents observed activity, talk to visitors, administrators, and religious leaders, and investigated what they do and say on social media.

All findings then wound up in a secret report which includes personal details about what the administrators and teachers studied, who their relatives are, with whom they argued, and how often they had contact with authorities in foreign countries, like Morocco.

Leaders of the Muslim organizations that were secretly probed say they feel betrayed.

It is unclear whether the practice is legal, which is why several members of the Dutch Parliament are now demanding clarification from the outgoing Minister of Justice and Security, Ferd Grapperhaus, who is said to be involved.

"The ease with which the government violates (fundamental) rights when it comes to Islam or Muslims is shocking," Stephan van Baarle, member of the leftist party DENK, told De Volkskrant, another Dutch newspaper.

Leaders of the Muslim organizations that were secretly probed say they feel betrayed. Hassan Saidi, director of one of the mosques investigated, said that the relationship with the local municipality had been good. "This puts a huge dent in the trust I'd had in the municipality," he told the Dutch public broadcaster NOS.

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