Geopolitics

ARABICA - A Daily Shot Of What the Arab World is Saying/Hearing/Sharing

ARABICA - A Daily Shot Of What the Arab World is Saying/Hearing/Sharing

A R A B I C A ارابيكا

By Kristen Gillespie

DEFECTION
Despite persistent reports to the contrary, Syria's official media continues to deny that soldiers are defecting from the army. A quick tour of YouTube turns up dozens of defector videos. The latest is here, with Ahmed Darwish in uniform and showing his official identity card announcing that he was joining the opposition "because of the army shelling mosques and firing on demonstrators." Darwish, who is not only risking his own life but that of his family, friends and pretty much everyone he knows, reveals the name of his commanding officer who issued a direct order "to fire on demonstrators." Soldiers do not want to fire on their fellow Syrians, but are under direct orders and afraid, Darwish says.

TRIAL
The trial of Egypt's former President Hosni Mubarak entered its fourth day on Wednesday, following a postponement earlier in the week when fighting broke out in the Egyptian courtroom. Police captain Abdul Hakim Mohammed was ordered by presiding Judge Ahmed Rifaat to be held in custody for having perjured himself. The families of victims killed during the January 25th revolution cheered from the spectators' gallery as the order was announced. Mohammed testified that security officers were not equipped with live ammunition during the 18-day revolution, and that he did not know who had killed 856 peaceful protesters.

Mohammed's statements directly contradict the captain's earlier testimony during the police investigation in March when he said that security forces were armed with grenades, tear gas, bullets, shotguns and other weaponry.

WITNESS
Al Hayat newspaper reports that Field Marshal Hussein Tantawi, the head of the ruling military leadership, the Armed Forces' Chief of Staff Sami Annan and the powerful ex-head of Egyptian intelligence, who has mysteriously escaped prosecution, Omar Suleiman will testify at Mubarak's trial in the coming days.

FUGITIVE
Al Jazeera reports that Libyan fugitive leader Muammar Gaddafi and son Saif al-Islam are likely "still inside Libya" as rumors circulate that the two are seeking to cut a deal that would allow them to leave the country.

AND IN OTHER NEWS...
Checking in with Syria's official news agency, top stories include:

*"The burials of martyred soldiers' bodies and Defense Ministry employees take place in home towns and cities'

*"China again rejects any pressure on Syria and calls for more time for reforms'

*Finance Minister Mohammed "Al-Jalailiti: Impact of European sanctions very small, ‘We will depend on ourselves'"

*"6.5 billion Syrian pounds for tourist projects in Tartous, invitations issued to solve problem of land purchasing in order to encourage domestic tourism"


Sep 7, 2011

photo credit: illustir

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Geopolitics

How Thailand's Lèse-Majesté Law Is Used To Stifle All Protest

Once meant to protect the royal family, the century-old law has become a tool for the military-led government in Bangkok to stamp out all dissent. A new report outlines the abuses.

Pro-Democracy protest at The Criminal Court in Bangkok, Thailand

Laura Valentina Cortés Sierra

"We need to reform the institution of the monarchy in Thailand. It is the root of the problem." Those words, from Thai student activist Juthatip Sirikan, are a clear expression of the growing youth-led movement that is challenging the legitimacy of the government and demanding deep political changes in the Southeast Asian nation. Yet those very same words could also send Sirikan to jail.

Thailand's Criminal Code 'Lèse-Majesté' Article 112 imposes jail terms for defaming, insulting, or threatening the monarchy, with sentences of three to 15 years. This law has been present in Thai politics since 1908, though applied sparingly, only when direct verbal or written attacks against members of the royal family.


But after the May 2014 military coup d'état, Thailand experienced the first wave of lèse-majesté arrests, prosecutions, and detentions of at least 127 individuals arrested in a much wider interpretation of the law.

The recent report 'Second Wave: The Return of Lèse-Majesté in Thailand', documents how the Thai government has "used and abused Article 112 of the Criminal Code to target pro-democracy activists and protesters in relation to their online political expression and participation in peaceful pro-democracy demonstrations."

Criticism of any 'royal project'

The investigation shows 124 individuals, including at least eight minors, have been charged with lèse-majesté between November 2020 and August 2021. Nineteen of them served jail time. The new wave of charges is cited as a response to the rising pro-democracy protests across Thailand over the past year.

Juthatip Sirikan explains that the law is now being applied in such a broad way that people are not allowed to question government budgets and expenditure if they have any relationship with the royal family, which stifles criticism of the most basic government decision-making since there are an estimated 5,000 ongoing "royal" projects. "Article 112 of lèse-majesté could be the key (factor) in Thailand's political problems" the young activist argues.

In 2020 the Move Forward opposition party questioned royal spending paid by government departments, including nearly 3 billion baht (89,874,174 USD) from the Defense Ministry and Thai police for royal security, and 7 billion baht budgeted for royal development projects, as well as 38 planes and helicopters for the monarchy. Previously, on June 16, 2018, it was revealed that Thailand's Crown Property Bureau transferred its entire portfolio to the new King Maha Vajiralongkorn.

photo of graffiti of 112 crossed out on sidewalk

Protestors In Bangkok Call For Political Prisoner Release

Peerapon Boonyakiat/SOPA Images via ZUMA Wire

Freedom of speech at stake

"Article 112 shuts down all freedom of speech in this country", says Sirikan. "Even the political parties fear to touch the subject, so it blocks most things. This country cannot move anywhere if we still have this law."

The student activist herself was charged with lèse-majesté in September 2020, after simply citing a list of public documents that refer to royal family expenditure. Sirikan comes from a family that has faced the consequences of decades of political repression. Her grandfather, Tiang Sirikhan was a journalist and politician who openly protested against Thailand's involvement in World War II. He was accused of being a Communist and abducted in 1952. According to Sirikhan's family, he was killed by the state.

The new report was conducted by The International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH), Thai Lawyer for Human Rights (TLHR), and Internet Law Reform Dialogue (iLaw). It accuses Thai authorities of an increasingly broad interpretation of Article 112, to the point of "absurdity," including charges against people for criticizing the government's COVID-19 vaccine management, wearing crop tops, insulting the previous monarch, or quoting a United Nations statement about Article 112.

Juthatip Sirikan speaks in front of democracy monument.

Shift to social media

While in the past the Article was only used against people who spoke about the royals, it's now being used as an alibi for more general political repression — which has also spurred more open campaigning to abolish it. Sirikan recounts recent cases of police charging people for spreading paint near the picture of the king during a protest, or even just for having a picture of the king as phone wallpaper.

The more than a century-old law is now largely playing out online, where much of today's protest takes place in Thailand. Sirikan says people are willing to go further on social media to expose information such as how the king intervenes in politics and the monarchy's accumulation of wealth, information the mainstream media rarely reports on them.

Not surprisingly, however, social media is heavily monitored and the military is involved in Intelligence operations and cyber attacks against human rights defenders and critics of any kind. In October 2020, Twitter took down 926 accounts, linked to the army and the government, which promoted themselves and attacked political opposition, and this June, Google removed two Maps with pictures, names, and addresses, of more than 400 people who were accused of insulting the Thai monarchy. "They are trying to control the internet as well," Sirikan says. "They are trying to censor every content that they find a threat".

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