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Geopolitics

A Pause In The War, Returning Home In Syria

The Damascus suburb of Barzeh
The Damascus suburb of Barzeh
Ahmad, Youmna al-Dimashqi and Karen Leigh

DAMASCUS — Despite relative calm after months of heavy fighting, Syrians returning home to the Damascus suburb of Barzeh are finding their homes in need of repairs that are often too pricey to take on alone.

At the beginning of the year, in besieged suburbs of Damascus and in rural villages within the province, local opposition officials signed temporary cease-fire agreements with the Syrian government. Rebel fighters put down their weapons and, slowly, civilians were allowed to return to the long-embattled neighborhoods.

Barzeh, a northwest suburb of the Syrian capital, was one of the first communities to recognize a cease-fire with forces of President Bashar al-Assad, following more than a year of violence.

The area had been a site of near-daily fighting since March 2013, and many residents who fled say that they couldn’t wait to return home.

But once they did, many found their homes reduced to rubble — though they had left, the fighting had continued — along with failing local job markets and economies. Many are still unable to afford the sky-high cost of rebuilding.

When it was announced in early January that civilians were allowed to return, ousted residents rushed back to the city. They found entire streets leveled. According to estimates by United Nations officials who visited Barzeh, it was one of the hardest hit in the Damascus area. The level of destruction to homes and commercial spaces here hit 75% to 85% in peripheral areas, and 100% along the front lines.

Abd al-Rahman al-Shami, a member of a local civilian council that is surveying the damage, says that four months after the cease-fire was signed, nearly 300 families have returned — just one-third of Barzeh’s original 35,000 residents. He says the majority have not returned primarily because they cannot afford the cost of repairing their homes.

Short supplies, high demand

Because they are in short supply, construction supply prices in the suburbs have skyrocketed by about 400% over the past two years. The price of a 50 kilogram bag of cement in Barzeh now runs to 1,000 Syrian pounds ($6.70). One cubic meter of sand has reached 4,000 pounds ($27) and the average price of window glass is approximately 1,300 pounds ($8.75). The majority of those returning are unemployed, and can’t afford to buy much beyond food and other basic supplies.

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In Barzeh — Photo: HamaEcho

Restoration costs obviously vary depending on the level of damage. While the cost of fixing a partially damaged house might run 75,000 pounds ($500) for broken windows, doors and ceiling repairs, it can cost as much as 400,000, or $2,600, to rebuild a home with more extensive damage.

If they want to return to their old homes, most residents must cover the costs out of their own pockets. Abu Haitham, who is married with three children, says he had to borrow money from friends to restore his home. Since his return, he has redone two of the four rooms, using clear plastic sheets instead of glass as a cost-cutting measure.

He “believes that glass will be the first victim of any shell that might fall on the neighborhood in the future.” He adds that most of his neighbors, who have also chosen to return, borrowed money from relatives or were forced to sell their gold or other valuables.

One man, Abu Amer, used metal boards to cover the holes left in the walls by shelling. He will go on living in his battered house no matter how it looks to the outside world, he says, because he refuses to be homeless again.

There have been minor attempts to alleviate the burden. A local NGO funded by Syrian and international donors provided residents with some free construction supplies, but as donor funds dried up or were diverted to more immediate needs such as food and medical aid, the service was discontinued.

Despite the economic pressure on civilians, Barzeh’s cease-fire agreement is widely considered more successful than similar ones in neighboring areas, and the town has enjoyed a modicum of stability. But despite its slow rebuild, the landscape here is haunted by scenes of fierce fighting. Entire neighborhoods, including the once-bustling Dahr al-Mistah and al-Ghammeh, remain ghost towns.

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Society

Tour Of Istanbul's Ancient Yedikule Gardens, At Risk With Urban Restoration

The six-hectare gardens in the center of Istanbul, which are more than 1,500 years old, have helped feed the city's residents over the centuries and are connected with its religious history. But current city management has a restoration project that could disrupt a unique urban ecosystem.

Photo of Muslims performing Friday prayer in the garden of Suleymaniye Mosque, Istanbul.

Last March, Muslims performing Friday prayer in the garden of Suleymaniye Mosque, Istanbul.

Tolga Ildun via ZUMA Press Wire
Canan Coşkun

ISTANBUL — The historic urban gardens of Yedikule in Istanbul are at risk of destruction once again. After damage in 2013 caused by the neighborhood municipality of Fatih, the gardens are now facing further disruption and possible damage as the greater Istanbul municipality plans more "restoration" work.

The six-hectare gardens are more than 1,500 years old, dating back to the city's Byzantine era. They were first farmed by Greeks and Albanians, then people from the northern city of Kastamonu, near the Black Sea. Now, a wide variety of seasonal produce grows in the garden, including herbs, varieties of lettuce and other greens, red turnip, green onion, cabbage, cauliflower, tomato, pepper, corn, mulberry, fig and pomegranate.

Yedikule is unique among urban gardens around the world, says Cemal Kafadar, a historian and professor of Turkish Studies at Harvard University.

“There are (urban gardens) that are older than Istanbul gardens, such as those in Rome, but there is no other that has maintained continuity all this time with its techniques and specific craft," Kafadar says. "What makes Yedikule unique is that it still provides crops. You might have eaten (from these gardens) with or without knowing about it."

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