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This Happened

This Happened—December 22:  Bertha Röntgen's Hand Becomes Landmark Of Science

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In 1895, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen took the first X-ray ever.

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What was the first X-ray taken of?

Röntgen's experiments revealed that this new type of ray was capable of passing through most substances, including the soft tissues of the body, but left bones and metals visible.

How did the X-ray change the medical field?

In addition to the help X-rays provided in diagnostics, doctors began applying the rays to treating disease. Electrotherapy had proved popular for the temporary relief of real and imagined pains, which used the same apparatus to generate X-rays. In January 1896, a Chicago electrotherapist named Emil Grubbe irradiated a woman's recurrent breast cancer, while others found positive results in the treatment of surface lesions and skin problems.

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Geopolitics

The Trumpian Virus Undermining Democracy Is Now Spreading Through South America

Taking inspiration from events in the United States over the past four years, rejection of election results and established state institutions is on the rise in Latin America.

Two supporters of far-right Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro dressed in Brazilian flags during a demonstration in Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Bolsonaro supporters dressed in national colours with flags in a demonstration in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, on November 4, 2022.

Ivan Abreu / ZUMA
Carlos Ruckauf*

-Analysis-

BUENOS AIRES — South Africa's Nelson Mandela used to say it was "so easy to break down and destroy. The heroes are those who make peace and build."

Intolerance toward those who think differently, even inside the same political space, is corroding the bases of representative democracy, which is the only system we know that allows us to live and grow in freedom, in spite of its flaws.

Recent events in South America and elsewhere are precisely alerting us to that danger. The most explosive example was in Brazil, where a crowd of thousands managed to storm key institutional premises like the presidential palace, parliament and the Supreme Court.

In Peru, the country's Marxist (now former) president, Pedro Castillo, sought to use the armed and security forces to shut down parliament and halt the Supreme Court and state prosecutors from investigating corruption allegations against him.

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