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This Happened

This Happened — June 13: Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Elected Iranian President

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was declared the winner of the Iranian presidential election on this day in 2009.

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What were the circumstances surrounding the 2009 Iranian presidential election?

The 2009 Iranian presidential election was marked by controversy and widespread protests. Many Iranians believed that the election results were fraudulent and that the process was rigged in favor of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. This led to mass demonstrations and unrest throughout the country.

How did Mahmoud Ahmadinejad 's victory in the 2009 election affect Iran? 

Ahmadinejad's victory in the 2009 election led to a significant political crisis in Iran. The disputed election results and subsequent protests exposed deep divisions within the country and strained the legitimacy of the government. The government responded with a crackdown on protesters, leading to arrests, violence, and human rights concerns.

Did Mahmoud Ahmadinejad serve a full second term as president?

While Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was declared the winner of the 2009 presidential election and initially served a full second term, his presidency faced challenges and controversies. Over time, he faced criticism from various political factions and experienced a decline in popularity. Ahmadinejad's presidency concluded in 2013 when Hassan Rouhani succeeded him as the President of Iran.

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Why Friendship For Seniors Is Different — And More Important Than You Can Know

Even if the aging and elderly tend to wind up confined to family circles, Argentine academics Laura Belli and Danila Suárez explore the often untapped benefits of friendship in our later years.

Photograph of two elderly women and an elderly man walking arm in arm. Behind the, there are adverts for famous football players.

Two elderly women and a man walk arm in arm

Philippe Leone/Unsplash
Laura F. Belli and Danila Suárez Tomé

BUENOS AIRES — What kind of friendship do people most talk about? Most often it is childhood or teenage friendships, while friendships between men and women are repeatedly analyzed. What about friendships among the elderly? How are they affected when friends disappear, at a stage when grieving is already more frequent?

Argentines Laura Belli and Danila Suárez Tomé, two friends with PhDs in philosophy, explore the challenges and benefits of friendship in their book Filosofía de la amistad (Friendship Philosophy).

They consider how friendships can emerge later in life, in profoundly altered circumstances from those of our youth, with people living through events like retirement, widowhood, reduced autonomy or to a greater or lesser degree, personal deterioration. All these can affect older people's ability to form and keep friendships, even if changes happen at any stage in life.

Filosofía de la amistadexplores the place of friendships amid daunting changes. These are not just the result of ageing itself but also of how one is perceived, nor will they affect everyone exactly the same way. Aging has firstly become a far more diverse experience, with increasing lifespans and better healthcare everywhere, and despite an inevitable restriction in life opportunities, a good many seniors enjoy far greater freedom and life choices than before.

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