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This Happened

This Happened - April 1: Spanish Civil War Is Over

The Spanish Civil War officially ended on this day in 1939, when General Francisco Franco's Nationalist forces declared victory over the Republican forces.

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What was the outcome of the Spanish Civil War?

The war resulted in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people and widespread destruction in Spain. After the Spanish Civil War, the dictatorship of General Franco began, lasting until his death in 1975.

The war also had a wider impact on the world, as it was seen as a precursor to World War II and highlighted the dangers of fascist and communist ideologies.

The war also inspired writers and artists, with works such as Ernest Hemingway's "For Whom the Bell Tolls" and Pablo Picasso's "Guernica" reflecting the conflict's impact on the cultural landscape.

What caused the Spanish Civil War?

The main causes of the Spanish Civil War were political and social divisions in Spain, including the divide between Republicans and Nationalists, economic struggles, and tensions between urban and rural areas.

Who were the Nationalists and Republicans in the Spanish Civil War?

The Nationalists were led by General Francisco Franco and supported by conservative groups, monarchists, and the Catholic Church. The Republicans were a coalition of left-wing parties, trade unions, and other groups who supported the democratic government.

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How Gen Z Is Breaking Europe's Eternal Alcohol Habit

Young people across Europe are drinking less, which is driving a boom in non-alcoholic alternatives, and the emergence of new, more complex markets.

photo of a beer half full on a bar

German beer, half-full?

Katarzyna Skiba

Updated Dec. 6, 2023 at 10:00 a.m.

PARIS — From Irish whisky to French wine to German beer, Europe has long been known for alcohol consumption. Of the top 10 countries for drinking, nine are in the European Union, according to the World Health Organization.

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But that may be starting to change, especially among Gen Z Europeans, who are increasingly drinking less or opting out entirely, out of concern for their health or problematic alcohol use. A recent French study found the proportion of 17-year-olds who have never consumed alcohol has multiplied, from less than 5% to nearly 20% over the past two decades.

The alcohol-free trend is propping up new markets for low- or zero-alcoholic beverages, including in one of Europe’s beer capitals: Germany.

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