When the world gets closer.

We help you see farther.

Sign up to our expressly international daily newsletter.

Already a subscriber? Log in .

You've reached your limit of one free article.

Get unlimited access to Worldcrunch

You can cancel anytime .


Exclusive International news coverage

Ad-free experience NEW

Weekly digital Magazine NEW

9 daily & weekly Newsletters

Access to Worldcrunch archives

Free trial

30-days free access, then $2.90
per month.

Annual Access BEST VALUE

$19.90 per year, save $14.90 compared to monthly billing.save $14.90.

Subscribe to Worldcrunch
This Happened

This Happened — October 11: Second Vatican Council

Pope John XXIII convened the Second Vatican Council on this day in 1962.

Get This Happened straight to your inbox ✉️ each day! Sign up here.

What was Pope John XXIII's significance in the Roman Catholic Church's history?

Pope John XXIII, born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, was the 261st Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, serving from 1958 until his death in 1963. He is best known for convening the Second Vatican Council, also known as Vatican II, in 1962.

What was the First Vatican Council, and when did it take place?

The First Vatican Council, sometimes referred to as Vatican I, took place from 1869 to 1870. It was convened by Pope Pius IX and primarily focused on defining the doctrine of papal infallibility and addressing issues related to the relationship between faith and reason.

Why did Pope John XXIII convene the Second Vatican Council in 1962?

Pope John XXIII called for the Second Vatican Council in an attempt to bring about spiritual renewal and modernization within the Roman Catholic Church. He aimed to update the Church's practices, teachings, and its relationship with the modern world.

What were some of the significant changes and outcomes of Vatican II?

Vatican II resulted in a series of important changes and reforms in the Roman Catholic Church, including:

-The use of vernacular languages in the liturgy, rather than Latin.

-A renewed emphasis on the role of the laity in the Church.

-A more open and inclusive approach to ecumenical dialogue with other Christian denominations.

-An affirmation of religious freedom as a fundamental human right.

You've reached your limit of free articles.

To read the full story, start your free trial today.

Get unlimited access. Cancel anytime.

Exclusive coverage from the world's top sources, in English for the first time.

Insights from the widest range of perspectives, languages and countries.

FOCUS: Russia-Ukraine War

Putin's "Pig-Like" Latvia Threat Is A Chilling Reminder Of What's At Stake In Ukraine

In the Ukraine war, Russia's military spending is as high as ever. Now the West is alarmed because the Kremlin leader is indirectly hinting at a possible attack on Latvia, a NATO member. It is a reminder of a growing danger to Europe.

Photo of Russian President Vladimir Putin

Russian President Vladimir Putin

Pavel Lokshin


BERLIN — Russian President Vladimir Putin sometimes chooses downright bizarre occasions to launch his threats against the West. It was at Monday's meeting of the Russian Human Rights Council, where Putin expressed a new, deep concern. It was not of course about the human rights of the thousands of political prisoners in his own country, but about the Russian population living in neighboring Latvia, which happens to be a NATO member, having to take language tests.

Keep reading...Show less

The latest