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This Happened

This Happened - March 27: Quentin Tarantino Was Born

American filmmaker, screenwriter, and actor Quentin Tarantino was born on this day in 1963.


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Has Quentin Tarantino won any awards for his films?

Quentin Tarantino has won numerous awards for his films, including two Academy Awards for Best Original Screenplay for "Pulp Fiction" and "Django Unchained." His films have also won numerous other awards, including Golden Globe Awards, BAFTA Awards, and Cannes Film Festival awards.

Why are Quentin Tarantino's movies controversial?

Quentin Tarantino's films have sometimes been criticized for their depictions of and the glorification of violence and for their use of racially charged language and a broader insensitivity to issues of race.

What is Quentin Tarantino working on now?

As of September 2021, Quentin Tarantino had recently announced his retirement from filmmaking after completing his 10th film, "Once Upon a Time in Hollywood." However, he has also expressed interest in continuing to work in other areas, such as writing books or directing plays.

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Green

Forest Networks? Revisiting The Science Of Trees And Funghi "Reaching Out"

A compelling story about how forest fungal networks communicate has garnered much public interest. Is any of it true?

Thomas Brail films the roots of a cut tree with his smartphone.

Arborist and conservationist Thomas Brail at a clearcutting near his hometown of Mazamet in the Tarn, France.

Melanie Jones, Jason Hoeksema, & Justine Karst

Over the past few years, a fascinating narrative about forests and fungi has captured the public imagination. It holds that the roots of neighboring trees can be connected by fungal filaments, forming massive underground networks that can span entire forests — a so-called wood-wide web. Through this web, the story goes, trees share carbon, water, and other nutrients, and even send chemical warnings of dangers such as insect attacks. The narrative — recounted in books, podcasts, TV series, documentaries, and news articles — has prompted some experts to rethink not only forest management but the relationships between self-interest and altruism in human society.

But is any of it true?

The three of us have studied forest fungi for our whole careers, and even we were surprised by some of the more extraordinary claims surfacing in the media about the wood-wide web. Thinking we had missed something, we thoroughly reviewed 26 field studies, including several of our own, that looked at the role fungal networks play in resource transfer in forests. What we found shows how easily confirmation bias, unchecked claims, and credulous news reporting can, over time, distort research findings beyond recognition. It should serve as a cautionary tale for scientists and journalists alike.

First, let’s be clear: Fungi do grow inside and on tree roots, forming a symbiosis called a mycorrhiza, or fungus-root. Mycorrhizae are essential for the normal growth of trees. Among other things, the fungi can take up from the soil, and transfer to the tree, nutrients that roots could not otherwise access. In return, fungi receive from the roots sugars they need to grow.

As fungal filaments spread out through forest soil, they will often, at least temporarily, physically connect the roots of two neighboring trees. The resulting system of interconnected tree roots is called a common mycorrhizal network, or CMN.

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