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This Happened

This Happened—November 13: The Worst Terrorist Attack France Had Ever Seen

In the deadliest attack on France since World War II, 131 people were killed in a series of shootings and suicide bombings across Paris by Islamist terrorists.

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Who was responsible for the Nov. 13 attacks in Paris?

Nine members of the Islamic State (ISIS), based mostly in Brussels, carried out the coordinated attacks at the Stade de France football stadium, the Bataclan theater music venue, and a number of cafes in eastern Paris.

Seven of the attackers were shot or detonated suicide vests during the attacks, while the remaining two were killed in a police raid a few days later.

Why did they carry out the Bataclan attacks?

François Hollande, France’s president at the time, said ISIS organized the attacks with coordination in the Middle East, and help from inside France. Singling out Paris as a capital of “abomination and perversion”, as well as retaliation for French airstrikes on ISIS in Syria and Iraq, were cited as contributing motives in the attack.

What happened after the 2015 Paris attacks?

Following the attacks, a state of emergency was declared in France. Once civil rights were suspended, police raided almost 3,600 houses and made over 400 arrests, while the state of emergency remained until November of 2017, almost two full years later.

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Society

In Northern Kenya, Where Climate Change Is Measured In Starving Children

The worst drought in 40 years, which has deepened from the effects of climate change, is hitting the young the hardest around the Horn of Africa. A close-up look at the victims, and attempts to save lives and limit lasting effects on an already fragile region in Kenya.

Photo of five mothers holding their malnourished children

At feeding time, nurses and aides encourage mothers to socialize their children and stimulate them to eat.

Georgina Gustin

KAKUMA — The words "Stabilization Ward" are painted in uneven black letters above the entrance, but everyone in this massive refugee camp in Kakuma, Kenya, calls it ya maziwa: The place of milk.

Rescue workers and doctors, mothers and fathers, have carried hundreds of starving children through the doors of this one-room hospital wing, which is sometimes so crowded that babies and toddlers have to share beds. A pediatric unit is only a few steps away, but malnourished children don’t go there. They need special care, and even that doesn’t always save them.

In an office of the International Rescue Committee nearby, Vincent Opinya sits behind a desk with figures on dry-erase boards and a map of the camp on the walls around him. “We’ve lost 45 children this year due to malnutrition,” he says, juggling emergencies, phone calls, and texts. “We’re seeing a significant increase in malnutrition cases as a result of the drought — the worst we’ve faced in 40 years.”

From January to June, the ward experienced an 800 percent rise in admissions of children under 5 who needed treatment for malnourishment — a surge that aid groups blame mostly on a climate change-fueled drought that has turned the region into a parched barren.

Opinya, the nutrition manager for the IRC here, has had to rattle off these statistics many times, but the reality of the numbers is starting to crack his professional armor. “It’s a very sad situation,” he says, wearily. And he believes it will only get worse. A third year of drought is likely on the way.

More children may die. But millions will survive malnutrition and hunger only to live through a compromised future, researchers say. The longer-term health effects of this drought — weakened immune systems, developmental problems — will persist for a generation or more, with consequences that will cascade into communities and societies for decades.

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