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This Happened

This Happened — September 25: Mozambique War Of Independence

On this day in 1964, the Mozambican War of Independence against Portugal began.

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What was the Mozambican War of Independence?

The Mozambican War of Independence was a protracted armed conflict that took place from 1964 to 1974 in the Portuguese colony of Mozambique . It was fought between the Mozambican Liberation Front (FRELIMO) and Portuguese colonial forces, driven by the desire of Mozambicans to end Portuguese colonial rule and gain independence. Under Portuguese rule, the native population faced economic exploitation, social discrimination, and limited political representation, which fueled the desire for self-determination.

How did FRELIMO conduct its campaign for independence?

FRELIMO employed a combination of guerrilla warfare tactics , including ambushes, hit-and-run attacks, and sabotage of infrastructure. The organization aimed to weaken Portuguese control and gain support from the local population. The war had a devastating impact on Mozambique's population. Civilians often bore the brunt of the conflict, facing violence, displacement, and economic disruption. Many people were forced to flee their homes and seek refuge in neighboring countries.

What was the Lusaka Accord?

The Lusaka Accord was a peace agreement signed between FRELIMO and the Portuguese government on September 7, 1974. It marked the end of military hostilities and set the stage for Mozambique's transition to independence. Mozambique officially gained independence from Portugal on June 25, 1975. The country's first president was Samora Machel, who had been a key leader in FRELIMO's struggle for independence.

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FOCUS: Israel-Palestine War

“I Am Palestinian” — When History Calls Us To Stand In Their Shoes, To Say Who We Are

There are certain watershed moments where the world comes together in defense of an idea or a people, or maybe both. A call from afar to stand up in the name of the Palestinian people.

Thousands of demonstrators took to the streets of Berlin's central district on November 4 for a pro-Palestinian rally.

Ranjani Iyer Mohanty


CALGARY — Stanley Kubrick’s 1960 film “Spartacus,” starring Kirk Douglas and Laurence Olivier, is based on a true story of the leader of a momentous slave rebellion against the Roman empire circa 70 BC.

Near the end of the movie, when the slaves have been captured, the Roman general offers to let them all live if they reveal their leader, the gladiator Spartacus. In a show of solidarity and final act of bravery, the slaves stand up one-by-one, to declare: “I am Spartacus.”

And with that, all are crucified.

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