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This Happened

This Happened — September 25: Mozambique War Of Independence

On this day in 1964, the Mozambican War of Independence against Portugal began.

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What was the Mozambican War of Independence?

The Mozambican War of Independence was a protracted armed conflict that took place from 1964 to 1974 in the Portuguese colony of Mozambique . It was fought between the Mozambican Liberation Front (FRELIMO) and Portuguese colonial forces, driven by the desire of Mozambicans to end Portuguese colonial rule and gain independence. Under Portuguese rule, the native population faced economic exploitation, social discrimination, and limited political representation, which fueled the desire for self-determination.

How did FRELIMO conduct its campaign for independence?

FRELIMO employed a combination of guerrilla warfare tactics , including ambushes, hit-and-run attacks, and sabotage of infrastructure. The organization aimed to weaken Portuguese control and gain support from the local population. The war had a devastating impact on Mozambique's population. Civilians often bore the brunt of the conflict, facing violence, displacement, and economic disruption. Many people were forced to flee their homes and seek refuge in neighboring countries.

What was the Lusaka Accord?

The Lusaka Accord was a peace agreement signed between FRELIMO and the Portuguese government on September 7, 1974. It marked the end of military hostilities and set the stage for Mozambique's transition to independence. Mozambique officially gained independence from Portugal on June 25, 1975. The country's first president was Samora Machel, who had been a key leader in FRELIMO's struggle for independence.

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Gaza And Ukraine, Two More Wars Of A World Still Addicted To Oil

Hydrocarbons continue to drive nations' economies and politics around the world, creating both corruption, stagnation and — sadly as we've seen again — all-out war.

Gas station in Rafah, Gaza on November 8, 2023

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MEXICO CITY Crude oil is and will remain fundamental to the countries that produce it, where the sector often comes to occupy an outsized role in policymaking, squeezing out the societal needs that must be the priority of public policy.

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