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This Happened

This Happened — September 25: Mozambique War Of Independence

On this day in 1964, the Mozambican War of Independence against Portugal began.

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What was the Mozambican War of Independence?

The Mozambican War of Independence was a protracted armed conflict that took place from 1964 to 1974 in the Portuguese colony of Mozambique. It was fought between the Mozambican Liberation Front (FRELIMO) and Portuguese colonial forces, driven by the desire of Mozambicans to end Portuguese colonial rule and gain independence. Under Portuguese rule, the native population faced economic exploitation, social discrimination, and limited political representation, which fueled the desire for self-determination.

How did FRELIMO conduct its campaign for independence?

FRELIMO employed a combination of guerrilla warfare tactics, including ambushes, hit-and-run attacks, and sabotage of infrastructure. The organization aimed to weaken Portuguese control and gain support from the local population. The war had a devastating impact on Mozambique's population. Civilians often bore the brunt of the conflict, facing violence, displacement, and economic disruption. Many people were forced to flee their homes and seek refuge in neighboring countries.

What was the Lusaka Accord?

The Lusaka Accord was a peace agreement signed between FRELIMO and the Portuguese government on September 7, 1974. It marked the end of military hostilities and set the stage for Mozambique's transition to independence. Mozambique officially gained independence from Portugal on June 25, 1975. The country's first president was Samora Machel, who had been a key leader in FRELIMO's struggle for independence.

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Influencer Union? The Next Labor Rights Battle May Be For Social Media Creators

With the end of the Hollywood writers and actors strikes, the creator economy is the next frontier for organized labor.

​photograph of a smartphone on a selfie stick

Smartphone on a selfie stick

Steve Gale/Unsplash
David Craig and Stuart Cunningham

Hollywood writers and actors recently proved that they could go toe-to-toe with powerful media conglomerates. After going on strike in the summer of 2023, they secured better pay, more transparency from streaming services and safeguards from having their work exploited or replaced by artificial intelligence.

But the future of entertainment extends well beyond Hollywood. Social media creators – otherwise known as influencers, YouTubers, TikTokers, vloggers and live streamers – entertain and inform a vast portion of the planet.

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For the past decade, we’ve mapped the contours and dimensions of the global social media entertainment industry. Unlike their Hollywood counterparts, these creators struggle to be seen as entertainers worthy of basic labor protections.

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