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This Happened

This Happened — October 23: Hungarian Revolution

The Hungarian Revolution started on this day in 1956.

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What was the Hungarian Revolution of 1956?

The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 was a spontaneous nationwide uprising against the Soviet-backed government of Hungary that began on October 23, 1956, and lasted until November 10, 1956. It was a pivotal event during the Cold War.

What triggered the revolution in Hungary?

The revolution was sparked by a student demonstration in Budapest on October 23, 1956, which escalated into mass protests and demands for political change. The initial protest was in support of the Polish anti-communist movement and escalated when Hungarian security forces fired on demonstrators.

Did the Hungarian Revolution achieve its goals?

The Hungarian Revolution did not achieve its immediate goals of independence from Soviet control and the establishment of a new government. On November 4, 1956, Soviet tanks and troops invaded Hungary to crush the uprising and restore Soviet control. The intervention led to a brutal crackdown, reasserting Moscow's dominance over Hungary, and many participants in the uprising were persecuted.

What were the long term consequences of the Hungarian Revolution?

The Hungarian Revolution had significant consequences for Hungary and the Cold War. It demonstrated the limits of satellite states' independence within the Eastern Bloc and revealed the willingness of the Soviet Union to use military force to maintain control.

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Society

How Gen Z Is Breaking Europe's Eternal Alcohol Habit

Young people across Europe are drinking less, which is driving a boom in non-alcoholic alternatives, and the emergence of new, more complex markets.

photo of a beer half full on a bar

German beer, half-full?

Katarzyna Skiba

Updated Dec. 6, 2023 at 10:00 a.m.

PARIS — From Irish whisky to French wine to German beer, Europe has long been known for alcohol consumption. Of the top 10 countries for drinking, nine are in the European Union, according to the World Health Organization.

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But that may be starting to change, especially among Gen Z Europeans, who are increasingly drinking less or opting out entirely, out of concern for their health or problematic alcohol use. A recent French study found the proportion of 17-year-olds who have never consumed alcohol has multiplied, from less than 5% to nearly 20% over the past two decades.

The alcohol-free trend is propping up new markets for low- or zero-alcoholic beverages, including in one of Europe’s beer capitals: Germany.

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