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This Happened

This Happened - March 19: The Two Germanys Meet

The meeting between West Germany's Willy Brandt and East Germany's Willi Stoph on this day in 1970, was part of Brandt's "Ostpolitik" (Eastern policy), which aimed to improve relations between West Germany and East Germany.

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Who were the leaders of East and West Germany in the famous 1970 meeting?

West Germany's Willy Brandt was the Chancellor of West Germany at the time of the meeting. East Germany's Willi Stoph was the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany's government).

What was the outcome of the meeting between Brandt and Stoph?

The meeting between Brandt and Stoph was seen as a success, as it marked a significant step forward in the process of improving relations between the two German states. Both leaders agreed to continue talks on various issues, including trade, travel, and communication. The meeting also helped to lay the groundwork for future agreements and negotiations between East and West Germany.

What was the significance of the meeting between Brandt and Stoph?

It was the first summit meeting between the leaders of East and West Germany since the division of Germany after World War II. The meeting helped to pave the way for further talks and negotiations between the two countries, and it contributed to the eventual improvement of relations between East and West Germany. The meeting was also a key moment in Brandt's Ostpolitik, which was widely seen as a major diplomatic breakthrough at the time.

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Geopolitics

In Iraqi Literature, A Surprisingly Minor Role For The U.S. Invasion

Leading writers in Iraq depict the U.S. invasion and its consequences as just one chapter in a much longer and broader history of foreign occupations and internal political violence in Iraq.

Image of people looking through books in a book market in the street.

Iraqi men browse used books at the Friday book market in downtown Baghdad, Iraq.

Renee Ragin Randall

-Analysis-

It’s been just over 20 years since the United States invaded Iraq. Some Americans have largely forgotten about the invasion, despite the fact the Sept. 11 attacks that precipitated it still loom large in U.S. national memory. Even during the heart of the war in 2006, most young Americans could not find Iraq on a map.

Many Iraqis, though, have a more nuanced, deeper understanding of the country’s recent history: An understanding which can be seen in their literature – and particularly in the contemporary, post-invasion literature that scholars like me study.

For the past two decades, Iraqi literature in particular has undertaken a deep excavation of its recent past, going far beyond the confines of the U.S. invasion.

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