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This Happened

This Happened — October 5: Chilean Referendum

The referendum in Chile took place on this day in 1988, when citizens voted against extending General Augusto Pinochet's regime.

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Who was General Augosto Pinochet, and what was his regime like?

General Augusto Pinochet was a military officer who came to power in Chile through a coup in 1973, overthrowing the democratically elected government of Salvador Allende. His regime was characterized by authoritarian rule, human rights abuses, censorship, and political repression.

What were the options in the 1988 Chilean referendum?

The 1988 referendum had two options: "Yes" for those who supported extending Pinochet's rule for another term, and "No" for those who wanted to end his regime and transition to democratic elections. In a historic moment, the "No" vote won with nearly 56% of the vote, leading to the end of Pinochet's rule. This marked a significant step towards Chile's return to democracy.

What factors contributed to the success of the "No" campaign in Chile?

Several factors contributed to the success of the "No" campaign, including a united opposition, the airing of television commercials promoting the "No" vote, international pressure, and a desire among Chileans for a return to democracy and an end to Pinochet's regime.

What happened after the 1988 Chilean referendum?

Following the "No" vote, Chile began a transition to democracy, which culminated in presidential elections in 1989, won by Patricio Aylwin. Pinochet remained as the head of the armed forces until 1998 and later became a senator for life. The transition to democracy involved addressing human rights abuses, implementing political reforms, and rebuilding Chilean society.

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Influencer Union? The Next Labor Rights Battle May Be For Social Media Creators

With the end of the Hollywood writers and actors strikes, the creator economy is the next frontier for organized labor.

​photograph of a smartphone on a selfie stick

Smartphone on a selfie stick

Steve Gale/Unsplash
David Craig and Stuart Cunningham

Hollywood writers and actors recently proved that they could go toe-to-toe with powerful media conglomerates. After going on strike in the summer of 2023, they secured better pay, more transparency from streaming services and safeguards from having their work exploited or replaced by artificial intelligence.

But the future of entertainment extends well beyond Hollywood. Social media creators – otherwise known as influencers, YouTubers, TikTokers, vloggers and live streamers – entertain and inform a vast portion of the planet.

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For the past decade, we’ve mapped the contours and dimensions of the global social media entertainment industry. Unlike their Hollywood counterparts, these creators struggle to be seen as entertainers worthy of basic labor protections.

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