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This Happened—November 19: Reagan And Gorbachev On Neutral Territory

In order to begin to alleviate decades of tension between the U.S. and Soviet Union, Switzerland hosted the Geneva Summit of 1985 where American President Ronald Reagan and Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev would begin to lead the world out of the Cold War

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Why did the Geneva Summit of 1985 occur?

In 1985, Cold War tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States were still high, and the nuclear arms race still very much on. Despite tensions, Reagan and Gorbachev agreed that something must be done to reduce their number of nuclear weapons.

What happened during the Geneva Summit of 1985?

U.S. President Ronald Reagan and Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev met at a villa in Geneva Switzerland to make a first attempt at slowing the arms race and improving diplomatic relations. There, the two discussed their nuclear stockpiles and response capabilities, such as the Strategic Defense Initiative, as well as ideological differences on human rights and civil liberties.

Reagan even reportedly asked the Soviet leader if he would help to defend Americans from an alien invasion, to which he responded with a firm “No doubt about it.”

Although the 1985 Geneva Summit yielded little immediate change, it paved the way for future discussions between the two leaders and played a notable role in mitigating the tensions of the Cold War. The two would go on to hold more meetings like this and, after Reagan left office, Gorbachev would continue to hold similar meetings with U.S. president George H.W. Bush when he took office, leading to the definitive end of the Cold War.

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food / travel

Pasta v. Fascists: How Italy's Staple Dish Became A Symbol Of Resistance

Pasta may not be considered controversial today, but it played an important role during Italy's fascist years, particularly in one family's celebration of community and liberation.

Photo of the Cervi family.

Photo of the Cervi family, whose seven children were shot by the Fascists on December 28, 1943, at the Reggio Emilia shooting range.

@comunisti_alla_ribalta via Instagram
Jacopo Fontaneto

ROME — Eighty years ago — on July 25, 1943 — the vote of no confidence by the Grand Council of Fascism, leading to Benito Mussolini's arrest, set off widespread celebrations. In Campegine, a small village in the Emilian province, the Cervi family celebrated in their own way: they brought 380 kilograms of pasta in milk cans to the town square and offered it to all the inhabitants of the village.

The pasta was strictly plain: macaroni dressed with butter and cheese, seen as more of a "festive dish" in that period of deprivation. As soon as the Cervi brothers learned about the arrest of Mussolini, they procured flour, borrowed butter and cheese from the dairy, and prepared kilos and kilos of pasta. They then loaded it onto a cart to distribute it to their fellow villagers. Pastasciutta (dry pasta) specifically regards dishes with noodles that are plated "dry", not in broth. That would disqualify soup, risotto, ravioli...

Even though pastasciutta is the most stereotypical type of pasta today, it had a complicated relationship with the government during Italy's fascist years.

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