Sources

China Must Take A Harder Line With North Korea's Nuclear Provocations

Neighbors must make nice...
Neighbors must make nice...
Cheng Xiaohe

-OpEd-

BEIJING - Despite strong opposition from the international community, North Korea went ahead with its planned use of a long-range rocket to launch a satellite. As the North Koreans were cheering the successful Dec. 4 launch, their longtime Chinese ally was in no mood for celebrations.

North Korea’s missile and nuclear capabilities have been worrying the international community for years now. Due to the many similarities between satellite and long-range missile launching technology, the United States sees the launch as a serious threat.

Over the past dozen years, the U.S. and the United Nations Security Council have tried repeatedly to convince North Korea to give up its rocket launches. However, even the pressure of economic sanctions and three separate Security Council binding resolutions haven’t deterred the country from its repeated challenges to the international community.

But at the same time, many countries blame China for North Korea’s frequent violations, and have accused Beijing of not supporting the de-nuclearization of the Korean Peninsula.

What is the basis for such charges? And after years of painstakingly seeking peace and stability with its neighbors, what has China done to merit these accusations?

The first reason is based on the notion that China and North Korea are allies. The countries that hold this view are still looking from the Cold War perspective. The military mutual aid alliance between the two countries was officially formed in 1961, but has not been in effect since the end of the Cold War. Based on this view, countries still believe that China has an obligation to protect North Korea.

The second reason is the “balance of power" theory. In response to the rise of China, the U.S. is joining forces with China’s neighboring countries to rebalance the region. Thus, to avoid being isolated, China’s alliances with Russia and North Korea are stronger than ever.

The third reason is the “appeasement” theory. That is to say, China’s counter-measures to North Korea’s provocations are too accommodating and too weak. Not only does North Korea not appreciate Beijing's position, it also repeatedly crosses the red line to challenge China’s interests and the authority of the UN. The reason why North Korea can take such a tough stance is because China is not hard enough, and is not exerting its influence.

In the end, these criticisms are biased against China; still they are worth closer examination.

A dangerous friend

If North Korea continues to put massive funds into expensive missiles and nuclear research, why should China continue to offer it unconditional international humanitarian assistance? When North Korea provokes its neighbors over and over with missile launches and nuclear programs, this damages China’s image, alienates its relations with other countries, and weakens its position at the UN Security Council. So why should China still go out of its way to promote economic and trade cooperation with North Korea?

If North Korea does not listen to China’s advice, and continues to cross China’s diplomatic and security bottom line, shouldn’t China start re-examining its policy towards North Korea?

Meanwhile, how can North Korea’s security be safeguarded in this context? How can peace be guaranteed on the Korean Peninsula? Who is both capable and willing to launch satellites for North Korea? These are all the most crucial issues to be pondered.

All in all, North Korea is an important neighbor for China. In comparison with other neighboring countries, China has prioritized North Korea over the years. But this neighbor’s outrageous actions are harmful to its Chinese friend.

It’s time for China to seriously reconsider its policy toward North Korea.

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Green

Ecological Angst In India, A Mining Dumpsite As Neighbor

Local villagers in western India have been forced to live with a mining waste site on the edge of town. What happens when you wake up one day and the giant mound of industrial waste has imploded?

The mining dumpsite is situated just outside of the Badi village in the coastal state of Gujarat

Sukanya Shantha

BADI — Last week, when the men and women from the Bharwad community in this small village in western India stepped out for their daily work to herd livestock, they were greeted with a strange sight.

The 20-meter-high small hill that had formed at the open-cast mining dumpsite had suddenly sunk. Unsure of the reason behind the sudden caving-in, they immediately informed other villagers. In no time, word had traveled far, even drawing the attention of environment specialists and activists from outside town.

This mining dumpsite situated less than 500 meters outside of the Badi village in the coastal state of Gujarat has been a matter of serious concern ever since the Gujarat Power Corporation Limited began lignite mining work here in early 2017. The power plant is run by the Power Gujarat State Electricity Corporation Limited, which was previously known as the Bhavnagar Energy Company Ltd.

Vasudev Gohil, a 43-year-old resident of Badi village says that though the dumping site is technically situated outside the village, locals must pass the area on a daily basis.


"We are constantly on tenterhooks and looking for danger signs," he says. Indeed, their state of alert is how the sudden change in the shape of the dumpsite was noticed in the first place.

Can you trust environmental officials?

For someone visiting the place for the first time, the changes may not stand out. "But we have lived all our lives here, we know every little detail of this village. And when a 150-meter-long stretch cave-in by over 25-30 feet, the change can't be overlooked," Gohil adds.

This is not the first time that the dumpsite has worried local residents. Last November, a large part of the flattened part of the dumpsite had developed deep cracks and several flat areas had suddenly got elevated. While the officials had attributed this significant elevation to the high pressure of water in the upper strata of soil in the region, environment experts had pointed to seismic activities. The change is evident even today, nearly a year since it happened.

It could have sunk because of the rain.

After the recent incident, when the villagers raised an alarm and sent a written complaint to the regional Gujarat Pollution Control Board, an official visit to the site was arranged, along with the district administration and the mining department.

The regional pollution board officer Bhavnagar, A.G. Oza, insists the changes "aren't worrisome" and attributes it to the weather.

"The area received heavy rain this time. It is possible that the soil could have sunk in because of the rain," he tells The Wire. The Board, he says, along with the mining department, is now trying to assess if the caving-in had any impact on the ground surface.

"We visited the site as soon as a complaint was made. Samples have already been sent to the laboratory and we will have a clear idea only once the reports are made available," Oza adds.

Women from the Surkha village have to travel several kilometers to find potable water

Sukanya Shantha/The Wire

A questionable claim

That the dumpsite had sunk in was noticeable for at least three days between October 1 and 3, but Rohit Prajapati of an environmental watchdog group Paryavaran Suraksha Samiti, noted that it was not the first time.

"This is the third time in four years that something so strange is happening. It is a disaster in the making and the authorities ought to examine the root cause of the problem," Prajapati says, adding that the department has repeatedly failed to properly address the issue.

He also contests the GPCB's claim that excess rain could lead to something so drastic. "Then why was similar impact not seen on other dumping sites in the region? One cannot arrive at conclusions for geological changes without a deeper study of them," he says. "It can have deadly implications."

Living in pollution

The villagers have also accused the GPCB of overlooking their complaint of water pollution which has rendered a large part of the land, most importantly, the gauchar or grazing land, useless.

"In the absence of a wall or a barrier, the pollutant has freely mixed with the water bodies here and has slowly started polluting both our soil and water," complains 23- year-old Nikul Kantharia.

He says ever since the mining project took off in the region, he, like most other villagers has been forced to take his livestock farther away to graze. "Nothing grows on the grazing land anymore and the grass closer to the dumpsite makes our cattle ill," Kantharia claims.

The mining work should have been stopped long ago

Prajapati and Bharat Jambucha, a well-known environmental activist and proponent of organic farming from the region, both point to blatant violations of environmental laws in the execution of mining work, with at least 12 violations cited by local officials. "But nothing happened after that. Mining work has continued without any hassles," Jambucha says. Among some glaring violations include the absence of a boundary wall around the dumping site and proper disposal of mining effluents.

The mining work has also continued without a most basic requirement – effluent treatment plant and sewage treatment plant at the mining site, Prajapati points out. "The mining work should have been stopped long ago. And the company should have been levied a heavy fine. But no such thing happened," he adds.

In some villages, the groundwater level has depleted over the past few years and villagers attribute it to the mining project. Women from Surkha village travel several kilometers outside for potable water. "This is new. Until five years ago, we had some water in the village and did not have to lug water every day," says Shilaben Kantharia.

The mine has affected the landscape around the villages

Sukanya Shantha/The Wire

Resisting lignite mining

The lignite mining project has a long history of resistance. Agricultural land, along with grazing land were acquired from the cluster of 12 adjoining villages in the coastal Ghogha taluka between 1994 and 1997. The locals estimate that villagers here lost anything between 40-100% of their land to the project. "We were paid a standard Rs 40,000 per bigha," Narendra, a local photographer, says.

The money, Narendra says, felt decent in 1994 but for those who had been dependent on this land, the years to come proved very challenging. "Several villagers have now taken a small patch of land in the neighboring villages on lease and are cultivating cotton and groundnut there," Narendra says.

They were dependent on others' land for work.

Bharat Jambucha says things get further complicated for the communities which were historically landless. "Most families belonging to the Dalit or other marginalized populations in the region never owned any land. They were dependent on others' land for work. Once villagers lost their land to the project, the landless were pushed out of the village," he adds. His organization, Prakrutik Kheti Juth, has been at the forefront, fighting for the rights of the villages affected in the lignite mining project.

In 2017, when the mining project finally took off, villagers from across 12 villages protested. The demonstration was disrupted after police used force and beat many protesters. More than 350 of them were booked for rioting.

The villagers, however, did not give up. Protests and hunger strikes have continued from time to time. A few villagers even sent a letter to the President of India threatening that they would commit suicide if the government did not return their land.

"We let them have our land for over 20 years," says Gohil.

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