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African Feminism Exists! A Brief Manifesto

There is a persistent misconception that African women fighting for their rights and building their identity owe a debt to feminism passed down by White women and the West. It is crucial to understand that there are unique forms of feminism that have developed on and of the African continent.

Two afrofeminism activists pausing together  - The creative direction inspired by British-Moroccan photographer Hassan Hajjaj.

African feminism does not wait for anyone.

emmm / kambura.kinoti / Instagram
Axelle Jah Njike


"You cannot go around claiming that an idea or an item was imported into a given society unless you could also conclude that — to the best of your knowledge — there is not and never was any word or phrase in that society's indigenous language which describes that idea or item.”

These words, spoken by the Ghanaian feminist writer and playwright Ama Ata Aidoo, perfectly illustrate why feminism is tirelessly put on trial the moment it is used in reference to sub-Saharan or Afropean girls and women. Here, feminism is seen by many to be an import from the West, an imposition from white women to women of African descent, going against the "true" traditional values of the latter.

As if their being sub-Saharan exempted them from desires of emancipation. As if there was confusion, and it was an unknown process for them. Besides, from whom could they claim to be emancipated, if their situation is so enviable!

NGO afrofeminism activists pausing together in the framework of the realisation of a short film  titled \u201cBVUDZI\u201d which roughly translates to hair in Shona, follows a young woman as she retells the story of her hair,

African feminism did not wait for anyone.

afrofemmm / Instagram

Oppression and desire for emancipation 

Personally, I like to believe that at all times, in every region, African women have aspired to reign over themselves, to be free and to use this freedom to liberate others. Historically women’s oppression has known neither ethnic nor racial boundaries.

To perpetuate the idea that African women’s feminism is a simple emanation of white women’s feminism, is to deny them from any kind of singularity.

The oppression of women, regardless of the culture, also deprives men of their humanity

It is to refute the idea that they could have been responsible for their plight, and instead give women the impetus to take their destiny into their own hands. It is to reflect on their oppression, and to envisage possible solutions.

When it comes to freedom and the refusal of patriarchal authority — the hallmarks of feminism — I frankly find it hard to believe that sub-Saharan women have not had their share of grievances.

I find it hard to believe that feminisms of the global South began with colonialism, that women from these places waited for Western women to federate, fight, support and show solidarity with each other. It is an insult to imagine that it could have been otherwise. It is an affront to consider the stories of the emancipation of Sub-Saharan women as consecutive to those of other women.

At the heart of the question of feminism is that of self-determination, that of the reappropriation of one's narrative: to conceive or not to conceive children, to live freely one’s sexuality, to assert one's humanity. By its claim to individualism, feminism makes of the woman an individual, a subject, a citizen willing to make her own choices.

And perhaps it is because it is synonymous with self-determination that it is perceived as a "white woman's thing,” that its detractors lie and say there is no history of feminism on the continent, no need to claim it.

Art+Feminism Editathon 2019 held by Wikimedia Nigeria Foundation with CEEHOPE in Nigeria in month of March 2019

Art+Feminism Editathon held by Wikimedia Nigeria Foundation with CEEHOPE in Nigeria in March 2019

Wikimedia Nigeria

Against the patriarchal order

African feminism did not wait for anyone. It is even possible that it was in force among African women before there was even a term to define it, because from time immemorial, everywhere, there have been those fighting against sexism and the patriarchy imposed upon them.

Those who did not tolerate the existing inequalities, especially in the intimate and family sphere, are evidence of this. Those who rebelled against the idea that their participation in the life of the community depended on a man and their identity to be circumscribed to "daughters, wives, and mothers."

Vilified almost everywhere by its opponents because it goes against the established patriarchal order, and particularly within our cultures where the group prevails over the individual — especially when this individual is a woman — feminism appears as the community’s enemy.

Yesterday as today, all the argumentation about its relevance for African women illustrates the adage that says “when the sage shows the moon, the fool looks at his finger.”

To claim that the problem lies in the Westernization of the term, and not in the situation of women and the inequalities they experience, is to look through the small end of the telescope. It is a distraction. It is losing sight of the big picture.

It is to refuse to understand that no matter what you call it, no being on this planet will be truly free as long as a single woman, a single girl is enslaved.

The oppression of women, regardless of the culture, also deprives men of their humanity.

Feminism is everyone's business. It expresses a desire to live for something else. A world where each and every one of us can be who they are, a world of peace and possibilities. Updating the discourse on emancipation starting from oneself and using one's own terms belongs to all women, including Sub-Saharan women and their descendants.

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Chinese Students' "Absurd" Protest Against COVID Lockdowns: Public Crawling

While street demonstrations have spread in China to protest the strict Zero-COVID regulations, some Chinese university students have taken up public acts of crawling to show what extended harsh lockdowns are doing to their mental state.

​Screenshot of a video showing Chinese students crawling on a soccer pitch

Screenshot of a video showing Chinese students crawling

Shuyue Chen

Since last Friday, the world has watched a wave of street protests have taken place across China as frustration against extended lockdowns reached a boiling point. But even before protesters took to the streets, Chinese university students had begun a public demonstration that challenges and shames the state's zero-COVID rules in a different way: public displays of crawling, as a kind of absurdist expression of their repressed anger under three years of strict pandemic control.

Xin’s heart was beating fast as her knees reached the ground. It was her first time joining the strange scene at the university sports field, so she put on her hat and face mask to cover her identity.

Kneeling down, with her forearms supporting her body from the ground, Xin started crawling with three other girls as a group, within a larger demonstration of other small groups. As they crawled on, she felt the sense of fear and embarrassment start to disappear. It was replaced by a liberating sense of joy, which had been absent in her life as a university student in lockdown for so long.

Yes, crawling in public has become a popular activity among Chinese university students recently. There have been posters and videos of "volunteer crawling" across universities in China. At first, it was for the sake of "fun." Xin, like many who participated, thought it was a "cult-like ritual" in the beginning, but she changed her mind. "You don't care about anything when crawling, not thinking about the reason why, what the consequences are. You just enjoy it."

The reality out there for Chinese university students has been grim. For Xin, her university started daily COVID-19 testing in November, and deliveries, including food, are banned. Apart from the school gate, all exits have been padlock sealed.

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