The Newest Divo In Munich's Art Scene Is Nigerian-Born Curator Okwui Enwezor

He’s organized exhibitions from Johannesburg to New York. Now, Nigerian-American curator Okwui Enwezor, the new director of Munich’s historic Haus der Kunst, is taking Germany by storm.

Nigerian-born Okwui Enwezor, the new director of Munich's Haus der Kunst
Nigerian-born Okwui Enwezor, the new director of Munich's Haus der Kunst
Anna Fischhaber

MUNICH -- You will not find a smarter or better connected museum head anywhere on the planet. And certainly not one with a more polished command of protocol. That is, if you believe what Munich's in-crowd has been saying these past couple of months -- although some do wonder aloud why a person with such global experience would accept a job in a provincial capital. Now, however, "it has become a reality," as Bavaria's Minister of Science Wolfgang Heubisch put it a bit awkwardly, but with great pride, when on Thursday he officially introduced Okwui Enwezor as the new director of the Haus der Kunst.

Enwezor, who was born in 1963 in Kalaba, Nigeria, looks a little lost as he enters the huge room in the monumental building that dates back to the National Socialist era. There are surely less daunting tasks than taking the helm of an art gallery that – while it enjoys an international reputation – doesn't have its own collection but does have a difficult history. Enwezor, who has signed a five-year contract, calls it a "challenge," an "exciting perspective." He intends to create a separate space on the ground floor where visitors can learn about the history of the gallery. However, he says he does not want to focus too much on the National Socialist architecture – "you can't put a building on trial," he told the Süddeutsche Zeitung.

He added that as far as he is concerned, his work isn't about nationalities but ideas. Enwezor's first show – which also opened this Thursday – is devoted to U.S. painter Ellsworth Kelly, whose black and white works explore form and surface. Enwezor calls Kelly's art "noble – in the best sense of that word."

The chatting classes were right about Enwezor's good manners, which are one of the main reasons he is so likeable. The new director laughs often and loud, shakes hands, works the room thanking everyone effusively. He expresses thanks to Bavaria for having given him the job. He also thanks the museum staff and his predecessor, whose fantastic work has made his own job easier – but also harder for having such a standard to live up to. He says he doesn't intend to follow in the footsteps of the former director, Chris Dercon. Instead he will respectfully forge his own path alongside the one that Dercon traced. "Thank you so much," he keeps repeating in his aristocratic-sounding English, apparently utterly unperturbed by all the cameras.

Criss-crossing continents

Enwezor moved to New York from Nigeria in 1983, and studied political science at Jersey City State College before becoming an art critic, writer, poet and curator. In 2002, he was the artistic director of the prestigious Documenta contemporary art event that takes place every five years in Kassel, Germany. Five years earlier he had been artistic director of the second Johannesburg Biennale in South Africa.

Enwezor has also curated the Biennale of Contemporary Art of Seville, in Spain, and "Meeting Points 6" – which according to its website is "the sixth edition of the international multidisciplinary event that comprises visual arts, film, theater, dance, music, and performance and takes place across eight historic cities in the Middle East, North Africa, and Europe over a one-year period between April 2011 and March 2012."

Science Minister Heubisch praised Enwezor's excellent professional reputation and repeats that he is "proud that we were able to get you to come to Munich." They make a strange pair – the cosmopolitan Enwezor in his black suit, who according to the London-based Art Review is one of the 100 most powerful people in the art world, and the Free Democratic Party politician who praises Enwezor's German but then murmurs to him in English: "I hope it's okay for you if I switch to German or Bavarian now."

No problems with that, and Enwezor laughs politely as if he understood every word. He praises Munich‘s "lightness' and "self-awareness," the "highly educated German public," the city's fine arts tradition – all music to local ears.

However, with regard to the specifics of his plans for the gallery Enwezor is not giving too much away at his first public appearance. Modestly, he says he wants to immerse himself in the context, to understand and reflect, before he comes up with plans.

However, Münchners got a sampling of his tastes shortly before the 2002 Documenta, when he curated an exhibit at Villa Stuck that included African record covers. He says that, yes, he wants to open Haus der Kunst up to different things – such as jazz, for example. But now he has to move on, he has a lot of other interviews to do. "A new era is beginning," says a woman standing nearby as she watches him stride away.

Read the original article in German

Photo - 16 Miles of String

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7 Ways The Pandemic May Change The Airline Industry For Good

Will flying be greener? More comfortable? Less frequent? As the world eyes a post-COVID reality, we look at ways the airline industry has been changing through a pandemic that has devastated air travel.

Ready for (a different kind of) takeoff?

Carl-Johan Karlsson

It's hard to overstate the damage the pandemic has had on the airline industry, with global revenues dropping by 40% in 2020 and dozens of airlines around the world filing for bankruptcy. One moment last year when the gravity became particularly apparent was when Asian carriers (in countries with low COVID-19 rates) began offering "flights to nowhere" — starting and ending at the same airport as a way to earn some cash from would-be travelers who missed the in-flight experience.

More than a year later today, experts believe that air traffic won't return to normal levels until 2024.

But beyond the financial woes, the unprecedented slowdown in air travel may bring some silver linings as key aspects of the industry are bound to change once back in full spin, with some longer-term effects on aviation already emerging. Here are some major transformations to expect in the coming years:

Cleaner aviation fuel

The U.S. administration of President Joe Biden and the airline industry recently agreed to the ambitious goal of replacing all jet fuel with sustainable alternatives by 2050. Already in a decade, the U.S. aims to produce three billion gallons of sustainable fuel — about one-tenth of current total use — from waste, plants and other organic matter.

While greening the world's road transport has long been at the top of the climate agenda, aviation is not even included under the Paris Agreement. But with air travel responsible for roughly 12% of all CO2 emissions from transport, and stricter international regulation on the horizon, the industry is increasingly seeking sustainable alternatives to petroleum-based fuel.

Fees imposed on the airline industry should be funneled into a climate fund.

In Germany, state broadcaster Deutsche Welle reports that the world's first factory producing CO2-neutral kerosene recently started operations in the town of Wertle, in Lower Saxony. The plant, for which Lufthansa is set to become the pilot customer, will produce CO2-neutral kerosene through a circular production cycle incorporating sustainable and green energy sources and raw materials. Energy is supplied through wind turbines from the surrounding area, while the fuel's main ingredients are water and waste-generated CO2 coming from a nearby biogas plant.

Farther north, Norwegian Air Shuttle has recently submitted a recommendation to the government that fees imposed on the airline industry should be funneled into a climate fund aimed at developing cleaner aviation fuel, according to Norwegian news site E24. The airline also suggested that the government significantly reduce the tax burden on the industry over a longer period to allow airlines to recover from the pandemic.

Black-and-white photo of an ariplane shot from below flying across the sky and leaving condensation trails

High-flying ambitions for the sector

Joel & Jasmin Førestbird

Hydrogen and electrification

Some airline manufacturers are betting on hydrogen, with research suggesting that the abundant resource has the potential to match the flight distances and payload of a current fossil-fuel aircraft. If derived from renewable resources like sun and wind power, hydrogen — with an energy-density almost three times that of gasoline or diesel — could work as a fully sustainable aviation fuel that emits only water.

One example comes out of California, where fuel-cell specialist HyPoint has entered a partnership with Pennsylvania-based Piasecki Aircraft Corporation to manufacture 650-kilowatt hydrogen fuel cell systems for aircrafts. According to HyPoint, the system — scheduled for commercial availability product by 2025 — will have four times the energy density of existing lithium-ion batteries and double the specific power of existing hydrogen fuel-cell systems.

Meanwhile, Rolls-Royce is looking to smash the speed record of electrical flights with a newly designed 23-foot-long model. Christened the Spirit of Innovation, the small plane took off for the first time earlier this month and successfully managed a 15-minute long test flight. However, the company has announced plans to fly the machine faster than 300 mph (480 km/h) before the year is out, and also to sell similar propulsion systems to companies developing electrical air taxis or small commuter planes.

New aircraft designs

Airlines are also upgrading aircraft design to become more eco-friendly. Air France just received its first upgrade of a single-aisle, medium-haul aircraft in 33 years. Fleet director Nicolas Bertrand told French daily Les Echos that the new A220 — that will replace the old A320 model — will reduce operating costs by 10%, fuel consumption and CO2 emissions by 20% and noise footprint by 34%.

International first class will be very nearly a thing of the past.

The pandemic has also ushered in a new era of consumer demand where privacy and personal space is put above luxury. The retirement of older aircraft caused by COVID-19 means that international first class — already in steady decline over the last decades — will be very nearly a thing of the past. Instead, airplane manufacturers around the world (including Delta, China Eastern, JetBlue, British Airways and Shanghai Airlines) are betting on a new generation of super-business minisuites where passengers have a privacy door. The idea, which was introduced by Qatar Airways in 2017, is to offer more personal space than in regular business class but without the lavishness of first class.

Aerial view of Rome's Fiumicino airport

Aerial view of Rome's Fiumicino airport

Hygiene rankings  

Rome's Fiumicino Airport has become the first in the world to earn "the COVID-19 5-Star Airport Rating" from Skytrax, an international airline and airport review and ranking site, Italian daily La Repubblica reports. Skytrax, which publishes a yearly annual ranking of the world's best airports and issues the World Airport Awards, this year created a second list to specifically call out airports with the best health and hygiene standards.

Smoother check-in

​The pandemic has also accelerated the shift towards contactless traveling, with more airports harnessing the power of biometrics — such as facial recognition or fever screening — to reduce touchpoints and human contact. Similar technology can also be used to more efficiently scan physical objects, such as explosive detection. Ultimately, passengers will be able to "check-in" and go through a security screening anywhere at the airports, removing queues and bottlenecks.

Data privacy issues

​However, as pointed out in Canadian publication The Lawyer's Daily, increased use of AI and biometrics also means increased privacy concerns. For example, health and hygiene measures like digital vaccine passports also mean that airports can collect data on who has been vaccinated and the type of vaccine used.

Photo of planes at Auckland airport, New Zealand

Auckland Airport, New Zealand

Douglas Bagg

The billion-dollar question: Will we fly less?

At the end of the day, even with all these (mostly positive) changes that we've seen take shape over the past 18 months, the industry faces major uncertainty about whether air travel will ever return to the pre-COVID levels. Not only are people wary about being in crowded and closed airplanes, but the worth of long-distance business travel in particular is being questioned as many have seen that meetings can function remotely, via Zoom and other online apps.

Trying to forecast the future, experts point to the years following the 9/11 terrorist attacks as at least a partial blueprint for what a recovery might look like in the years ahead. Twenty years ago, as passenger enthusiasm for flying waned amid security fears following the attacks, airlines were forced to cancel flights and put planes into storage.

40% of Swedes intend to travel less

According to McKinsey, leisure trips and visits to family and friends rebounded faster than business flights, which took four years to return to pre-crisis levels in the UK. This time too, business travel is expected to lag, with the consulting firm estimating only 80% recovery of pre-pandemic levels by 2024.

But the COVID-19 crisis also came at a time when passengers were already rethinking their travel habits due to climate concerns, while worldwide lockdowns have ushered in a new era of remote working. In Sweden, a survey by the country's largest research company shows that 40% of the population intend to travel less even after the pandemic ends. Similarly in the UK, nearly 60% of adults said during the spring they intended to fly less after being vaccinated against COVID-19 — with climate change cited as a top reason for people wanting to reduce their number of flights, according to research by the University of Bristol.

At the same time, major companies are increasingly forced to face the music of the environmental movement, with several corporations rolling out climate targets over the last few years. Today, five of the 10 biggest buyers of corporate air travel in the US are technology companies: Amazon, IBM, Google, Apple and Microsoft, according to Taipei Times, all of which have set individual targets for environmental stewardship. As such, the era of flying across the Atlantic for a two-hour executive meeting is likely in its dying days.

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