The Mystery Of A Vanishing Relic - Did The Vatican Steal The Holy Foreskin?

Calcata in the Tuscan countryside, the former home to the most valuable relic of all?
Calcata in the Tuscan countryside, the former home to the most valuable relic of all?
Helmut Luther

CALCATA – Alessandro Falconi had promised he would pick up his guests by car, but he is an hour late. Luckily, the 30-kilometer drive to Calcata, where Falconi runs a small Bed & Breakfast, more than made up for the long wait.

The roads in this countryside north of Rome are narrow and winding. Falconi’s car is a sun-faded Fiat Panda that would not pass a vehicle inspection in Germany. The door on the passenger side only opens from the inside. Foam oozes from the dusty seats. To get the engine started, Falconi fiddled with two wires under the steering wheel.

The 50-year-old, who sports a reddish stubble, stops to buy five euros worth of fuel at a gas station. He doesn’t bother to hide the fact that cash is tight: In Calcata, most people earn a modest living doing something linked to the business of culture.

The picturesque village on top of a hill is the “old” Calcata. Former residents of the old village built a Calcata Nuova on flatland nearby -- in the 1930s, they were forced out by law, because of the danger posed by erosion.

Photo: carlo andreucci

The spectacular aerie on the hill, about 50 kilometers north of Rome, was deserted and going to pot when it was discovered decades later by artists and esoteric folks who favored an alternative lifestyle.

At the time, Calcata was still known as home to a very special religious relic indeed: Christ’s Holy Foreskin.

Legend has it that after the Sack of Rome by Charles V’s troops in 1527, the Sanctum Praeputium ended up in Calcata. It was placed in a shrine above the main altar of the Santissimo Nome di Gesù church. Located on the village’s main piazza, the church became a destination for pilgrims. In 1584, under Pope Sixtus V, pilgrims who came to worship the Sanctum Praeputium in Calcata were awarded an indulgence.

In the Middle Ages, relics, the physical remains of saints – from toes to teeth, hair to fingernails – and things that they had touched and thus charged with their powers represented a link with the hereafter. Wars were fought over relics, and pious people turned to theft just to obtain these miraculous objects. The most valuable relic of all was the Holy Foreskin, since there is only one.

"I remember how they used to parade it through the village streets," says Marijke van der Maden. The Dutchwoman, who sells crèche figures she makes, raves about Calcata’s “energy.” She has been living here since the late 1970s. Back then, the relic was kept at the village church and paraded every year on January 1.

Then in the 1980s, the Sanctum Praeputium suddenly disappeared – and rumors are rife in the village and beyond as to who is responsible for its disappearance and where the relic might be now.

A Vatican conspiracy?

Don Enrico has been the parish priest at the Santissimo Nome di Gesù village church – where the relic was kept until its mysterious disappearance in 1983 – for four years. Head thrown back, his gaze on the ceiling above the altar, he shows visitors a fresco depicting the circumcision of the eight-day-old Infant Jesus.

Since the early Middle Ages, Don Enrico says, the Church has celebrated the Feast of the Circumcision of Christ on January 1. Looking grim, Don Enrico then points out the empty tabernacle where the Holy Foreskin used to sit. “They even stole the door of the tabernacle, set with precious stones,” he says somberly. Like his predecessor, Don Dario, Don Enrico ascribes the theft to sheer greed.

But most local residents believe another version of events, says Giancarlo Croce: “They suspect the Vatican.” The artist’s studio is in a former forge just behind the church. Here, he paints brightly colored mandalas, makes finely chiseled marble reliefs – and sells postcards depicting the Sanctum Praeputium. When he restored the relic in 1982 he took pictures of it. "I was one of the last people here to see it. Not long afterwards, on the day before the annual procession, the priest discovered that the relic was gone."

What Croce finds very interesting is that nobody ever reported the theft officially. He believes that powers-that-be had the relic whisked away because to the late 20th century Church “with its fixation on things sexual,” the worship of a foreskin had become something of an embarrassment." To Croce, a former communist and pacifist who does not earn much from his art, the disappearance of the relic also had personal consequences: Fewer pilgrims to Calcata meant fewer sales of his artwork and postcards.

And indeed – with its priceless relic gone, there’s not much happening in Calcata. On normal weekdays there isn’t a single restaurant open for lunch, although the Ristorante I Tre Monti down on the road toward Calcata Nuova serves strozzapreti (“priest strangler”), short curly pasta sprinkled with goat’s cheese and freshly ground pepper, and wild boar cutlets.

Keep up with the world. Break out of the bubble.
Sign up to our expressly international daily newsletter!

Chinese Students Now Required To Learn To Think Like Xi Jinping

"Xi Jinping Thought" ideas on socialism have been spreading across the country since 2017. But now, Beijing is going one step further by making them part of the curriculum, from the elementary level all the way up to university.

Children from Congtai Elementary School, Handan City, Hebei Province

Maximilian Kalkhof

BEIJING — It's important to strengthen the "determination to listen to and follow the party." Also, teaching materials should "cultivate patriotic feelings." So say the new guidelines issued by the Chinese Ministry of Education.

The goal is to help Chinese students develop more "Marxist beliefs," and for that, the government wants its national curriculum to include "Xi Jinping Thought," the ideas, namely, of China's current leader.

Xi Jinping has been the head of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) for almost 10 years. In 2017, at a party convention, he presented a doctrine in the most riveting of party prose: "Xi Jinping's ideas of socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new age."

Behind this word jam is a plan to consolidate the power of the nation, the party and Xi himself. In other words, to make China great again!

Communist curriculum replaces global subjects

This doctrine has sent shockwaves through China since 2017. It's been echoed in newspapers, on TV, and screamed from posters and banners hung in many cities. But now, the People's Republic is going one step further: It's bringing "Xi Jinping Thought" into the schools.

Starting in September, the country's 300 million students have had to study the doctrine, from elementary school into university. And in some cities, even that doesn't seem to be enough. Shanghai announced that its students from third to fifth grade would only take final exams in mathematics and Chinese, de facto deleting English as an examination subject. Beijing, in the meantime, announced that it would ban the use of unauthorized foreign textbooks in elementary and middle schools.

But how does a country that enchants its youth with socialist ideology and personality cults rise to become a world power? Isn't giving up English as a global language the quickest way into isolation?

The educational reform comes at a time when Beijing is brutally disciplining many areas of public life, from tech giants to the entertainment industry. It has made it difficult for Chinese technology companies to go public abroad, and some media have reported that a blanket ban on IPOs in the United States is on the cards in the next few years.

photo of books about Xi-Jinping on a shelf at the 2021 Hong Kong Book Fair

Books about Xi-Jinping at the 2021 Hong Kong Book Fair

Alex Chan Tsz Yuk/SOPA Images/ZUMA

— Photo:

Targeting pop culture

The regime is also taking massive action against the entertainment industry. Popstar Kris Wu was arrested on charges of rape. Movies and TV series starring actor Zhao Wei have started to disappear from Chinese streaming platforms. The reason is unclear.

What the developments do show is that China is attempting to decouple from the West with increasing insistence. Beijing wants to protect its youth from Western excesses, from celebrity worship, super wealth and moral decline.

A nationalist blogger recently called for a "profound change in the economy, finance, culture and politics," a "revolution" and a "return from the capitalists to the masses." Party media shared the text on their websites. It appears the analysis caused more than a few nods in the party headquarters.

Dictatorships are always afraid of pluralism.

Caspar Welbergen, managing director of the Education Network China, an initiative that aims to intensify school exchanges between Germany and China, says that against this background, the curriculum reform is not surprising.

"The emphasis on 'Xi Jinping Thought' is being used in all areas of society," he says. "It is almost logical that China is now also using it in the education system."

Needless to say, the doctrine doesn't make student exchanges with China any easier.

Dictatorships are always afraid of color, pluralism and independent thinking citizens. And yet, Kristin Kupfer, a Sinology professor at the University of Trier, suggests that ideologically charged school lessons should not be interpreted necessarily as a sign of weakness of the CCP.

From the point of view of a totalitarian regime, she explains, this can also be interpreted as a signal of strength. "It remains to be seen whether the Chinese leadership can implement this so thoroughly," Kupfer adds. "Initial reactions from teachers and parents on social media show that such a widespread attempt to control opinion has raised fears and discontent in the population."

Die Welt
Keep up with the world. Break out of the bubble.
Sign up to our expressly international daily newsletter!