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Life Lessons In Portunhol, South America's Border Language

Portunhol is a hybrid language spoken on the borders of Portuguese-speaking Brazil and its Spanish-speaking neighbors. The author's time learning it was a reminder that language is so much more than just a means of communicating.

Image of three road signs indicating different countries (Colombia, Brasil, Peru) outside in a street.

Three road signs indicating different countries, outside in a street.

Via Facebook - Antena Seis
Vanessa Sarmiento


I had the opportunity to live in Brazil recently, and I arrived knowing no Portuguese. As a native Spanish speaker, I initially tried to communicate just by modifying Spanish words. I would change the accent and add a different ending to words to sound more Portuguese. It only worked sometimes, but at least my efforts amused the locals and were appreciated.

It turns out, I had no idea I was in fact speaking Portunhol, a Spanish-Portuguese hybrid that is spoken along the border between Brazil and many Spanish-speaking countries. It combines the two languages to create something unique and entertaining.

Portunhol — or Portuñol to Spanish speakers — is a potent symbol of Latin America's incredible diversity and richness of language and culture. The borders between Latin American countries look firmly set on maps, but in reality, they are frequently fluid. Languages spoken in one country can influence and blend with those spoken in neighboring ones.

Portunhol is just one example of how language can bring people together and create a sense of shared identity and belonging, even across national borders.

Meaning of sounds

Portunhol is not limited to Brazil's border regions; it has spread to other parts of the country and beyond. In fact, Portunhol-speaking communities can be found throughout Brazil, as well as in other Spanish-speaking countries, such as Paraguay and Bolivia. It is estimated it has around 30,000 native speakers, but the actual number of people who speak it, either natively or as a second language, is hard to track.

So what does Portunhol sound like? It's as if you're in two places at once. People will speak Spanish and Portuguese interchangeably, and you may hear a word that is a mix of both languages and wonder if it is a Spanish word with a Portuguese accent or a Portuguese word with a Spanish twist.

Language is more than just a tool for communication.

One of the most fascinating aspects of Portunhol is that it is a living language. There are no rules or grammar to follow because it is not an official language. It's a language born out of necessity, of the need to communicate in a place where two languages collide. That is what makes it special.

Image of a busy, colorful street market in San Nicolas, CABA, Argentina, filled with people buying things, or just walking.

A busy street market in San Nicolas, CABA, Argentina.

Rafael Guimarães

Language constantly in flux

Language is not fixed — it constantly changes and adapts to new contexts and situations. It can cross national boundaries and bring people together in unexpected ways. Portunhol, which combines Brazil's rich cultural heritage and those of its Spanish-speaking neighbors, is a perfect example: it reminds us that language is more than just a tool for communication. It is also a reflection of our shared cultural heritage and identity.

After spending more time in Brazil, I began to learn Portuguese formally and eventually became fluent. Even so, I occasionally spoke Portunhol because it was such a fun and natural way to communicate. It also felt like a secret language, which only the people on the border and travelers could understand.

However, Portunhol is important not only for cultural identity. It also has a very practical purpose: tourism. People who know Portunhol will be able to communicate more easily with locals when they visit the border region. It demonstrates that you are interested in the local culture and are making an effort to connect with the people.

It doesn’t matter if you think of Portunhol as a linguistic curiosity or an important part of cultural identity, it's an intriguing way of communicating that shows there are no limits to language.

So, if you are ever lucky enough to find yourself on the borders of Brazil, Uruguay, or Argentina, take the time to learn a few Portunhol phrases. You may be surprised at how much it enriches your experience and connects you to the people and culture of this unique part of the world.

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A Naturalist's Defense Of The Modern Zoo

Zoos are often associated with animal cruelty, or at the very least a general animal unhappiness. But on everything from research to education to biodiversity, there is a case to be made for the modern zoo.

Photograph of a brown monkey holding onto a wired fence

A brown monkey hangs off of mesh wire

Marina Chocobar/Pexels
Fran Sánchez Becerril


MADRID — Zoos — or at least something resembling the traditional idea of a zoo — date back to ancient Mesopotamia. It was around 3,500 BC when Babylonian kings housed wild animals such as lions and birds of prey in beautiful structures known as the Hanging Gardens of Babylon.

Ancient China also played a significant role in the history of zoos when the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD) created several parks which hosted an assortment of animals.

In Europe, it wouldn't be until 1664 when Louis XIV inaugurated the royal menagerie at Versailles. All these spaces shared the mission of showcasing the wealth and power of the ruler, or simply served as decorations. Furthermore, none of them were open to the general public; only a few fortunate individuals, usually the upper classes, had access.

The first modern zoo, conceived for educational purposes in Vienna, opened in 1765. Over time, the educational mission has become more prominent, as the exhibition of exotic animals has been complemented with scientific studies, conservation and the protection of threatened species.

For decades, zoos have been places of leisure, wonder, and discovery for both the young and the old. Despite their past success, in recent years, society's view of zoos has been changing due to increased awareness of animal welfare, shifting sensibilities and the possibility of learning about wild animals through screens. So, many people wonder: What is the purpose of a zoo in the 21st century?

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