CAIRO — Antique dealers, second-hand markets, auction showrooms, music lovers and historians are the cornerstones of the wondrous world of vintage vinyl records in Egypt, just as they are in similar dusty corners around the world.
Egypt's phonographic history is particularly rich in oriental music, with record labels running from the end of the 19th century until the mid 1950s, through companies such as Gramophone, Odeon, Baidaphone, Meshian, and Polyphon. There were vernacular free verse, couplets, odes, Koran recitation, religious chanting and more. And when the competition between the companies came to an end, the floor was yielded to fierce competition between amateur record-collecting music aficionados, record dealers and Gulfie moneybags.
Zein is an antiques dealer in downtown Cairo who has a fondness for collecting vintage records and a good knowledge of Egyptian musical heritage. He sees vintage record collecting as a trap. Once sucked into this treasure-filled world, it's impossible not to plumb the depths in search of gem-like tunes and performances.
Music historians, aficionados, record dealers and amateur collectors from various countries come to Zein, who roams villages, markets and auctions in search of rare records to complete his valuable collection. His store is stacked with all the record varieties and phonograph labels that have ever existed in Egypt. He also owns a large number of recording devices, including deck recorders and cassette recorders, and innumerable cassette tapes.
Photo: Hussein Alazaat
He believes that genuine music aficionados are virtually extinct, recounting stories about Abdel Aziz al-Anany, Mohamed al-Bann, Saeed al-Masry, Am Gerger al-Tarzy, Mostafa Abul Oyoun and Mahmoud Kamel, who composed music for old Egyptian radio show Alhan Zaman. They were his companions and masters, the bond between them forged through love for genuine old music and record collecting, despite their diverse professions and social backgrounds.
Zein says his customers can be divided into three groups. The first are those who are very knowledgeable about music, and their number has dropped sharply to almost 10 people, including some Gulfie Arabs. Kuwaitis in particular are considered the best music aficionados in the Gulf region, he adds, such as the manager of Kuwait Music Academy, his most important customer.
The second group consists of researchers, and the third group is collectors, mostly Gulfies. Usually they request Oum Kalthoum and Mohamed Abdel Wahab records and have no interest in older music icons. Zein is not alarmed by Gulf money buying out Egyptian heritage, saying that Egypt still swarms with countless undiscovered gems despite centuries of plunder and robbery.
Zein owns a copy of the record archive at the Egyptian National Library and Archives, and uses it in his ardent search for old recordings to complete his collection.
Making it available to all
Zagazig physician Essmat al-Nemr is one of the old amateur record collectors, founder of online music portal Misrfone and a member of the online oriental music heritage forum Sama3y. He says the amount of this heritage — collected by music amateurs — available on online forums and other websites isn't much above 20%. The number of members of Sama3y, launched in 2005, has reached 726,517. Nemr meets his fellow amateurs at what he calls "the music aficionados' sanctuary," the residence of Mohamed al-Baz, who with more than 3,000 records and 20 gramophone devices, owns one of Egypt's most vast vinyl libraries.
Photo: Romina Campos
"These markets still surprise us with many more rare records," Nemr says. "I bought a valuable Oum Kalthoum record from the Tuesday market in Zagazig, while Dr. Baz got hold of a number of records by Seliman Abu Dawoud, a Jewish Egyptian singer, a music icon of the early 20th century and a descendant of an elite Assiut family. So the old and rare aren't just found in metropolises like Cairo and Alexandria."
The tiny group of record dealers is well known to music aficionados. At the Friday market at Sayyeda Aisha, for example, street vendors spread merchandise on the ground and you can dig for a rare, well-preserved recording or two. Such gems can also be found at antique shops that still sell gramophones and records. Sur al-Azbakeyya's old booksellers also buy complete record libraries.
"Egypt has a trove of rare recordings going back to the beginning of the 20th century," Nemr adds. "For example, you can find very early and first recordings by female Koran reciters. There is a record of the female reciter Mabrouka in 1905, and records by Sekeena Hassan and Munira Abdo. But around 1920, a religious fatwa was issued that women's voices shouldn't be heard, so female reciters were banned from radio broadcast and recording their own records."
Photo: Hussein Alazaat
In general, the documentation of Egyptian music heritage is deficient in drawing links between it and Egypt's remarkable social changes. For example, couplets and other illicit songs prevalent at the beginning of the 20th century up until World War I are worth analyzing, for most music studies have focused on musical notes and artists' histories. A paradox of the time was the appointment of Sheik Younes al-Qady — famous for writing illicit songs like "Draw the Curtains Around Us" — to head the Arts Censorship Authority after the new arts censorship law following the 1919 revolution.
Government archived, badly maintained
There is an immense record library at the Egyptian National Library and Archives — owing to a law that obligates artistic companies to deposit a copy of all productions there — but the library's condition is deteriorating. To search for what you want, you need the mediation of an acquaintance who works for the Culture Ministry. The broadcast radio archive, of course, had the biggest record library in the country, but much of it has been stolen and smuggled out of the country. Records are easily broken, and some can be played a maximum of 30 times. They therefore need maintenance by experts in record restoration.
"Online music heritage forums like Sama3y, Masrphone Radio, Samaa al-Molouk and Zamaan al-Wasl have not only helped bring about a new generation of music aficionados, they also manage to aggregate important music research," Nemr says. "It's always delightful to see the notable contribution of young people in Masrphone Radio, and I always receive a number of thank you messages for making heritage available."
Photo: Hussein Alazaat
Masrphone is a self-sustaining project supported by funds from two Egyptian friends of Nemr's living abroad who are genuinely concerned about making the monumental material of oriental music heritage available to the public. "Another friend volunteered to design the website and technically support it, while I prepare lists of productions for streaming," he says. "To make this heritage available online, we first need to make a copy of each record by playing it on a deck recorder, then send it through a cable to a computer and finally upload it to the online music forums."
Nemr claims that the Israeli radio broadcast archive also owns a massive library of oriental music that he believes is collected from American and European record companies. He is alarmed by the impact of Gulf money on Egyptian musical heritage. "They only buy them for the sake of stacking them in their houses as antiques, not to share them!" he says.
Amgad Naguib, an amateur antiques collector and owner of a vintage record library, disagrees. He believes we should drop the old stereotype of the wealthy Gulfie as ignorant nouveau riche, as they have come a long way in education and culture. While recognizing that they live in countries with arguably less heritage, Gulfies see Egypt as a country in which history has accumulated a remarkable amount of heritage, yet remains completely neglectful of it. In Naguib's view, they value highly what they possess of Egypt's heritage. He adds that they don't just request vintage records, but anything that is old and rare, and that they have their own Egyptian brokers who are experts in old and valuable items. He adds that exaggerated fears over the loss of our heritage is a mere delusion, especially as there are remarkable efforts to make it publicly available online.
*Translated by Nahla Osman
With loans and solar panels from China, the massive solar park has been opened a year and is already powering the surrounding areas. Now the Chinese supplier is pushing for an expansion.
CAUCHARI — Driving across the border with Chile into the northwest Argentine department of Susques, you may spot what looks like a black mass in the distance. Arriving at a 4,000-meter altitude in the municipality of Cauchari, what comes into view instead is an assembly of 960,000 solar panels. It is the world's highest photovoltaic (PV) park, which is also the second biggest solar energy facility in Latin America, after Mexico's Aguascalientes plant.
Spread over 800 hectares in an arid landscape, the Cauchari park has been operating for a year, and has so far turned sunshine into 315 megawatts of electricity, enough to power the local provincial capital of Jujuy through the national grid.
It has also generated some $50 million for the province, which Governor Gerardo Morales has allocated to building 239 schools.
Abundant sunshine, low temperatures
The physicist Martín Albornoz says Cauchari, which means "link to the sun," is exposed to the best solar radiation anywhere. The area has 260 days of sunshine, with no smog and relatively low temperatures, which helps keep the panels in optimal conditions.
Its construction began with a loan of more than $331 million from China's Eximbank, which allowed the purchase of panels made in Shanghai. They arrived in Buenos Aires in 2,500 containers and were later trucked a considerable distance to the site in Cauchari . This was a titanic project that required 1,200 builders and 10-ton cranes, but will save some 780,000 tons of CO2 emissions a year.
It is now run by 60 technicians. Its panels, with a 25-year guarantee, follow the sun's path and are cleaned twice a year. The plant is expected to have a service life of 40 years. Its choice of location was based on power lines traced in the 1990s to export power to Chile, now fed by the park.
Chinese engineers working in an office at the Cauchari park
Chinese want to expand
The plant belongs to the public-sector firm Jemse (Jujuy Energía y Minería), created in 2011 by the province's then governor Eduardo Fellner. Jemse's president, Felipe Albornoz, says that once Chinese credits are repaid in 20 years, Cauchari will earn the province $600 million.
The Argentine Energy ministry must now decide on the park's proposed expansion. The Chinese would pay in $200 million, which will help install 400,000 additional panels and generate enough power for the entire province of Jujuy.
The park's CEO, Guillermo Hoerth, observes that state policies are key to turning Jujuy into a green province. "We must change the production model. The world is rapidly cutting fossil fuel emissions. This is a great opportunity," Hoerth says.
The province's energy chief, Mario Pizarro, says in turn that Susques and three other provincial districts are already self-sufficient with clean energy, and three other districts would soon follow.
- Green Is Ugly: Style Problems Plague Clean Energy Push ... ›
- Solar Power: Researchers Map Out Colombia's Sunshine Hotspots ... ›
- EVs Start Moving Latin American Cities To Sustainability ... ›