When the world gets closer.

We help you see farther.

Sign up to our expressly international daily newsletter.

Already a subscriber? Log in .

You've reached your limit of one free article.

Get unlimited access to Worldcrunch

You can cancel anytime .


Exclusive International news coverage

Ad-free experience NEW

Weekly digital Magazine NEW

9 daily & weekly Newsletters

Access to Worldcrunch archives

Free trial

30-days free access, then $2.90
per month.

Annual Access BEST VALUE

$19.90 per year, save $14.90 compared to monthly billing.save $14.90.

Subscribe to Worldcrunch

Mahjong And The Chinese Mind

Mao Zedong once cited the "philosophy" in the Chinese parlor game of mahjong. It still happens to also be a mass pastime for millions of folk, both in China and among the diaspora. For others, it may be a way of understanding the unique

What's she thinking? (Charles Chan)
What's she thinking? (Charles Chan)
Li Li

BEIJING - Anytime, anywhere, if there are Chinese people around, the sound of mahjong won't be far. That's the sound of ivory (or plastic) tiles being knocked together.

While mahjong is seen today as a distraction for the masses, the game's place in early 20th-century China was in the hands of the elite: from the Dowager Empress Cixi to Soong Mei-Ling, the First Lady of the Republic of China and the wife of Generalissimo Chang Kai-Shek; from Mao Zedong to Zhu De; or even Liang Qichao, the influential Chinese philosopher…all were mahjong players.

Others didn't play but took great pleasure in following the game, like Liang Shih-Chiu and Hu Shi, two other prominent turn-of-the-century scholars. The former admitted "I don't play. Not because I consider myself more noble, but because I'm too slow at keeping up with other people's reactions." The latter made the remark that Britain's national game is cricket, America's baseball, Japan's wrestling, while China prefers mahjong.

Life around the mahjong table

Mahjong is played by four players. Along with the onlookers, they form a miniature society. The idea is that if people have time to play or watch these games, they must be doing well, and only a peaceful society allows such a lifestyle.

A lot of Chinese stories, whether in literature or on screen, are told through the mahjong table. In Ang Lee's Lust, Caution, mahjong games are a leitmotif. Whether it's rival wives sizing each other up, or a man and a woman exchanging glances, it all happens over a mahjong table.

In The Joy Luck Club, the 1993 feature film based on Amy Tang's best-selling novel depicting Chinese immigrants in the United States, the narrative structure is determined by the order in which the players are seated, and their tiles. The four families are the four major figures of the movie. Like in the game, they take turns in telling their respective stories.

Though it involves gambling, mahjong is first and foremost seen as a social occasion. For many Chinese, playing mahjong is an opportunity to see friends and get to know people better. In pre-communist Shanghai, it was even considered as a good way of choosing a son-in-law for one's daughter. It is believed that the game is a sure way to determine someone's character. Losing a game can bring out the player's flaws, like impatience and lack of manners, which cannot be the mark of a true gentleman.

Philosophy in those tiles

Mao Zedong once said "Don't underestimate playing mahjong. If you know how to play it, you'll have a better understanding of the relationship between chance and necessity. There's philosophy in mahjong."

Elizabeth Bambino, a French scholar, says the game is a window into Chinese manners. "The metaphor of mahjong culture, its egalitarian driving force, the dizzying sounds and gestures, as well as the tea-sipping, wine-drinking and the immersive atmosphere while playing it, all this takes away the feeling of a doomed destiny and the relationship between people and the secular power," she explained.

Even today, mahjong is still the most important form of recreation in Chinese society, and is played by ordinary people as well as officials. They organize their life and communicate with each other through the mahjong table. They also practice military strategies on the table.

Mahjong winners aren't just "lucky", they are calm and analytical. The careful observations of others, finding order from the disorder, are all manifestations of traditional Chinese thinking.

An American businessman introduced the game to the West in the 1920's. His book on "mahjong rules' has been dubbed the "little red book." Since then mahjong has been recognized as a sport in the West and led to bona fide leagues, competitions and team uniforms. One could imagine that both Chang Kai-Shek and Mao Zedong would wince together at such a sight.

Read the original article in Chinese

Photo - Charles Chan

You've reached your limit of free articles.

To read the full story, start your free trial today.

Get unlimited access. Cancel anytime.

Exclusive coverage from the world's top sources, in English for the first time.

Insights from the widest range of perspectives, languages and countries.


A Naturalist's Defense Of The Modern Zoo

Zoos are often associated with animal cruelty, or at the very least a general animal unhappiness. But on everything from research to education to biodiversity, there is a case to be made for the modern zoo.

Photograph of a brown monkey holding onto a wired fence

A brown monkey hangs off of mesh wire

Marina Chocobar/Pexels
Fran Sánchez Becerril


MADRID — Zoos — or at least something resembling the traditional idea of a zoo — date back to ancient Mesopotamia. It was around 3,500 BC when Babylonian kings housed wild animals such as lions and birds of prey in beautiful structures known as the Hanging Gardens of Babylon.

Ancient China also played a significant role in the history of zoos when the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD) created several parks which hosted an assortment of animals.

In Europe, it wouldn't be until 1664 when Louis XIV inaugurated the royal menagerie at Versailles. All these spaces shared the mission of showcasing the wealth and power of the ruler, or simply served as decorations. Furthermore, none of them were open to the general public; only a few fortunate individuals, usually the upper classes, had access.

The first modern zoo, conceived for educational purposes in Vienna, opened in 1765. Over time, the educational mission has become more prominent, as the exhibition of exotic animals has been complemented with scientific studies, conservation and the protection of threatened species.

For decades, zoos have been places of leisure, wonder, and discovery for both the young and the old. Despite their past success, in recent years, society's view of zoos has been changing due to increased awareness of animal welfare, shifting sensibilities and the possibility of learning about wild animals through screens. So, many people wonder: What is the purpose of a zoo in the 21st century?

Keep reading...Show less

The latest