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Deadly Virus Shakes Indian Village's Faith In Traditional Healers

An outbreak of Hepatitis-A led to the deaths of two children in an isolated village in Kashmir. Some point fingers at the lack of surveillance by trained doctors and poor sanitation, and others, to the faith villagers place in traditional healers.

Deadly Virus Shakes Indian Village's Faith In Traditional Healers

A health worker screening a young boy at the only health centre of the Turka Tachloo village

Jehangir Ali

TURKA TACHLOO Eight-year-old Afaan Altaf first lost his appetite. Then the child’s face and eyes started to pale. Within two days, he began to vomit.

The Altafs live in Turka Tachloo, a village of south Kashmir’s Kulgam district and were worried about Afaan. In early December, Afaan’s father Mohammad Altaf, a farmer, decided to visit the Maternity and Child Care hospital in the nearby town of Anantnag.

Official records show that Afaan had tested positive for Hepatitis-A on December 3 following an outbreak of the viral infection in Turka Tachloo. The village, located 54 kilometres from Srinagar, the largest city of Jammu and Kashmir, comprises about 240 households, most of which are poor and depend on agriculture.

A local official said that poor sanitation and lack of hygiene in the village, where nearly half of the population is illiterate, may have contributed to the hepatitis outbreak. According to doctors, the water-borne infection is transmitted through faecal-oral route and the virus can survive for months in favourable conditions.

Locals in Turka Tachloo, however, blamed the administration for negligence which allowed the infected water to reach the village.

Government action on drinking water

The government of India rolled out "Drinking water quality testing, monitoring and surveillance framework and guidelines" in March last year under which a network of "National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories’"(NABL) accredited labs were to be set up in every state, district and block over the next year. The Union government also set aside budget for monitoring water quality across the country.

But the ground situation in the Jammu and Kashmir region paints a dismal picture.

While the Union Territory has 98 testing laboratories, only three are accredited by NABL, according to the Union government’s Jal Jeevan Mission, implying that the other labs are not equipped to certify the quality of drinking water and raising questions over the credibility of official water testing mechanisms.

On the ground, after a flurry of visits by top district health and civil officials, the administration has deployed special teams of doctors, local healthcare workers and volunteers to carry door-to-door surveys in Turka Tachloo for screening the population. Four more positive cases have been reported.

Dr Mushtaq Ahmad Rather, Director Health Services (Kashmir) told TheWire that 1,444 persons including children have been screened since the outbreak and more than 300 blood samples have been tested. “From the last two days, there are no positive cases,” Dr Rather said, adding that most patients are students of a village school.

Dr Rather said that the administration is organising awareness campaigns involving community elders and religious activists of the village to encourage people to use boiled water for drinking and cooking purposes. “We are keeping a close eye on the situation,” he said.

The banks of the Veshaw river, which provides drinking water to the village, strewn with trash.

Jehangir Ali

A different reality on the ground

But the government’s initiatives don’t seem to be translating into action on ground. While the infection is water-borne, baby diapers soiled by faecal matter remain strewn along with plastic bags filled with garbage and uneaten food items on the banks of the river Veshaw, which supplies drinking water to Turka Tachloo.

“The villagers continue to use the river as a garbage dumping site, putting themselves and others at risk,” said a health department official, who is not authorised to speak with the media. The local administration has lifted three water samples from the village for testing. While one sample has returned negative, the result of the other two are awaited.

“It is the duty of the government to provide us with pure water. If the water is infected, doesn’t it mean the government is poisoning us? Is the government not accountable to people?” Muzaffar Rehman, a villager, asked.

“The condition is so bad that on some days, filthy water comes out of taps. Our elders raised the issue with officials but no one paid any attention,” said Mubashir Maqsood, an engineering graduate from the village.

Seeking treatment from a faith healer

Anguished by his son’s condition, Mohammad Altaf fled the hospital in Anantnag against the advice of doctors earlier this month and sought treatment from a traditional faith healer in Srinagar’s Dhara village, a popular address in Kashmir for newborns with severe jaundice and even adult patients with liver dysfunction.

The village is nestled in the foothills of Srinagar’s Zabarwan mountain range. A faith healer there is known to put his patients on a dose of herbal medicines and a lot of prayers. Afaan was one of these patients.

Many people in Kashmir continue to believe in faith healers

“His condition improved,” Altaf recalled outside his rundown home. But on the night of December 9, Altaf’s belief in faith healers shattered when Afaan’s condition deteriorated. During an episode of seizure, a condition associated with hepatic encephalopathy, a brain disorder caused by liver failure, he bit his own tongue, cutting and lacerating it badly.

Shocked by the turn of events, he again rushed his son to Anantnag hospital. Doctors there, referred him to Srinagar’s "Sher-e-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences." The child was later admitted to the Children’s Hospital in Srinagar on December 9. The next evening, Afaan’s condition deteriorated further and he slipped into a coma.

“The child had developed encephalitis. He was put on life support but we could not save him,” Dr Rather told TheWire.

Mohammad Altaf, father of Afaan, one of the two minors who died in the outbreak, in a tent for mourners outside his house

Jehangir Ali

“Had he not fled the hospital, his son could have been alive”

Afaan was the second child from Turka Tachloo village who fell prey to the viral infection. On December 7, two days before he was admitted at the children’s hospital, four-year-old Maira Gulzar, daughter of Gulzar Ahmad, a private cab driver, also passed away due to liver dysfunction due to Hepatitis-A infection.

The death of two minors has triggered panic in the village and the deep-rooted belief in faith healers has also taken a hit.

“Had he not fled the hospital, his son could have been alive,” said a villager, wishing not to be named.

Altaf seems to be reconciling with his son’s sudden demise – “it was god’s will and we couldn’t have changed it” – but is discomfited by the mention of the faith healer. “It won’t bring back my son,” he said.

“If trained doctors are posted at the wellness centres such outbreaks could be prevented in future"

Dr Tariq Qureshi, who heads the childcare hospital in Anantnag, said that Afaan’s life could have been saved if his father had not gone against the advice of doctors and continued the treatment. “It is unfortunate, but many people in Kashmir continue to believe in faith healers. Even the well-educated ones believe in these practices,” he said.

A need for trained doctors

Dr Salim Khan, who heads the Social and Preventive Medicine department at Srinagar’s SHMS hospital said that a patient infected by hepatitis A presents with symptoms of body aches, loss of appetite and abdominal pain which correlate with viral infection symptoms. He adds that the patients need to be monitored by doctors and parents constantly, “More than doctors, it is surveillance and good hygiene which can limit the spread of the disease.”

A Health and Wellness Centre has been set up in Turka Tachloo led by a community health officer and a small team of health workers to “address communicable and non-communicable diseases and services for elderly and palliative care.”

A senior health department official, who didn’t want to be named, said that the health officers often confuse the symptoms of hepatitis with viral infection.

“If trained doctors are posted at the wellness centres instead of health officers, who have a limited scope of practice, such outbreaks could be prevented in future. Also, the water testing mechanism used across the country isn’t so advanced to test the presence of viruses such as hepatitis-A, putting people at risk of catching water-borne viral diseases,” he said.

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Not Just Paris! Mongolia Is Also Battling Bedbugs (And Cockroaches... And Centipedes...)

Public extermination services were halted during the pandemic. Residents have embraced cheaper DIY solutions — but there are risks.

Photo of a bed bug

A bed bug photographed in the Biology Institute at the Technical University (TU) in Dresden, Germany

Khorloo Khukhnokhoi

ERDENET, ORKHON PROVINCE, MONGOLIA — Oyuka dresses for domestic battle. Mask. Gloves. Hair shrouded under a black hood. A disposable white gown reminiscent of a surgeon. It’s 2 p.m. on a Tuesday; her husband is at work and their two young children are at school. She shoves the oven, freezer and washing machine away from the kitchen walls and grabs a lime-green spray can from behind the bathtub, where it’s out of the children’s reach. “Magic Cleaner,” the bottle says in Chinese. A pesticide.

Oyuka — who asked to be referred to only by her nickname, out of fear of being criticized by her neighbors — lives on the eighth floor of a 10-story building in Erdenet, Mongolia’s second-largest city, where towering apartments cram together like subway riders. Lots of people means lots of trash, which means lots and lots of bugs. Cockroaches. Bedbugs. Centipedes. And what Mongolians call black bugs, speck-like insects that Oyuka fears will bite her children and make them sick.

Over the past year, Oyuka started noticing them in corners, under furniture, on windowsills. She increased how often she sprayed Magic Cleaner, from occasionally to every three months — even though the smell makes her stomach lurch. “Because I don’t know any other good poison, I use this poison often,” she says.

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