Italy’s Expertise Helps Iraqi National Library Search For Former Glory

After 2003 looting and years of disrepair, a onetime cultural gem in Baghdad gets restoration help from Florence and Venice.

Iraqi National Library after it was attacked in 2003 (IFLA)

LA STAMPA/Worldcrunch

By Carla Reschia

FLORENCE - Iraqi officials responsible for returning their ransacked National Library to its former glory are turning to a country -- and city -- that know a thing or two about cultural restoration.

Ever since the massive 1966 flood of the River Arno in Florence damaged scores of art masterpieces and countless rare books, Italians have become arguably the world's leading authorities on salvaging treasures of the past.

Experts in Florence are now imparting that knowledge -- and cutting-edge technology and practices – to their visiting Iraqi counterparts as part of a major restoration project, many years in the waiting.

The National Library in Baghdad was once considered one of the most important centers of Middle Eastern knowledge and culture, boasting a historical archive with a collection of a 1.5 million volumes, which included extremely rare ancient Korans. But in 2003 the library was bombed and looted in the aftermath of the American invasion, and ouster of Saddam Hussein's regime.

That spontaneous devastation followed the effects of the international embargo that preceded the war, which impeded upkeep of the library's contents and led to widespread corruption. A portion of the archeological collection has been misplaced or stolen over the years, most likely forever lost to the black market.

Restoring the library is the centerpiece of a project spearheaded by UNESCO and the European Union. The project, which includes officials from Iraq, Jordan and Italy, aims to restore the network of public libraries, universities and religious institutions that were once the pride of the region.

There are currently four Iraqi librarians in Italy who aim to bring back know-how and the latest techniques to the Baghdad library. Nadia Al-Shaikhli, Shatha Hashim, Ammar Al-Baidy and Iman Al-Rubaye — three women and a man — who are hard at work under the tutelage of Italian experts from the National Library in Florence, as well as the National Marciana Library of Venice. They are learning the newest techniques in digitization and informational archiving.

Upon their return to Iraq, the librarians will instruct their colleagues and share with them the essence of the project: to begin to return Iraq to its place as the Middle East's capital of tolerance and the cultural avant-garde. This is where, under the Abbasid Dynasty (750-1258), the Capital city of Baghdad commissioned 60 different libraries. They were all subsequently destroyed when the Mongols sacked the city in 1258. But the Iraqis, patiently over time, rebuilt them and remained faithful to the dictum: "The Egyptians write the books, the Lebanese sell the books, but it is in Baghdad that books are read."

But to engage with books now — like then — isn't easy or even safe. In Florence they still remember Ali, a leading librarian who was part of an earlier exchange program. When Ali returned home to Baghdad, he was killed in a random bombing.

"Over these years we have contributed to the renovation of their infrastructure, we are providing equipment for their labs, supplying technical instruction for the restoration and the digitization of the books," said Domenico Chirico director of the organization ‘A Bridge For," who is organizing the project. "But the central and most important task has been the professional and human exchange that has been created. Because of that, there is particular pain for everyone involved. We have tried to give whatever help we can to the family of Ali."

There is also another aspect to the project that has consumed the director of the library of Baghdad, Saad Eskander. The former Kurd resistance fighter, who was awarded Archivist of the Year by Columbia University in 2007, aims to recover materials from the national Archive that he claims was sequestered by the American forces after the invasion.

"We are still negotiating with the administrators and the American embassy in Baghdad," says Eskander. "In theory we have made progress, but in reality they are just trying to buy time hoping that we will just let it be. But we won't."

Eskander remains very skeptical about the future of culture in his country, noting that the government has not made it a high priority, nor increased the budget for such projects. "A serious government in my opinion should give priority to the rebuilding of the infrastructure and re-develop the institutions and the people who work there," he says. "But I don't believe they will do this and this is nothing new. It has been like this since the 1980s and so in that sense there really has been no regime change."

Read the original article in Italian

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Debt Trap: Why South Korean Economics Explains Squid Game

Crunching the numbers of South Korea's personal and household debt offers a glimpse into what drives the win-or-die plot of the Netflix hit produced in the Asian country.

In the Netflix series, losers of the game face death

Yip Wing Sum


SEOUL — The South Korean series Squid Game has become the most viewed series on Netflix, watched by over 111 million viewers and counting. It has also generated a wave of debate online and off about its provocative message about contemporary life.

The plot follows the story of a desperate man in debt, who receives a mysterious invitation to play a game in which the contestants gamble their lives on six childhood games, with the winner awarded a prize of 45.6 billion won ($38 million)... while the losers face death.

It's a plot that many have noted is not quite as surreal as it sounds, a reflection of the reality of Korean society today mired in personal debt.

Seoul housing prices top London and New York

In the polished streets of downtown Seoul, one sees endless cards and coupons advertising loans scattered on the ground. Since the outbreak of the pandemic, as the demand for loans in South Korea has exploded, lax lending policies have led to a rapid increase in personal debt.

According to the South Korean Central Bank's "Monetary Credit Policy Report," household debt reached 105% of GDP in the first quarter of this year, equivalent to approximately $1.5 trillion at the end of March, with a major share tied up in home mortgages.

Average home loans are equivalent to 270% of annual income.

One reason behind the debts is the soaring housing prices. In Seoul, home to nearly half of the country's population, housing prices are now among the highest in the world. The price to income ratio (PIR), which weighs the average price of a home to the average annual household income, is 12.04 in Seoul, compared to 8.4 in San Francisco, 8.2 in London and 5.4 in New York.

According to the Korea Real Estate Commission, 42.1% of all home purchases in January 2021 were by young Koreans in their 20s and 30s. For those in their 30s, the average amount borrowed is equivalent to 270% of their annual income.

Playing the stock market

At the same time, the South Korean stock market is booming. The increased demand to buy stocks has led to an increase in other loans such as credit. The ratio for Korean shareholders conducting credit financing, i.e. borrowing from securities companies to secure stock holdings, had reached 21.4 trillion won ($17.7 billion), further increasing the indebtedness of households.

A 30-year-old Seoul office worker who bought stocks through various forms of borrowing was interviewed by Reuters this year, and said he was "very foolish not to take advantage of the rebound."

In addition to his 100 million won ($84,000) overdraft account, he also took out a 100 million won loan against his house in Seoul, and a 50 million won stock pledge. All of these demands on the stock market have further exacerbated the problem of household debt.

42.1% of all home purchases in January 2021 were by young Koreans in their 20s and 30s

Simon Shin/SOPA Images/ZUMA

Game of survival

In response to the accumulating financial risks, the Bank of Korea has restricted the release of loans and has announced its first interest rate hike in three years at the end of August.

But experts believe that even if banks cut loans or raise interest rates, those who need money will look for other ways to borrow, often turning to more costly institutions and mechanisms.

This all risks leading to what one can call a "debt trap," one loan piling on top of another. That brings us back to the plot of Squid Game, "Either you live or I do." South Korean society has turned into a game of survival.

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