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Bollywood Is Finally Showing The True Colors Of India's Holi Festival

Holi is much more than just throwing petals and colored powders. In addition to being a celebration of life, family and fertility, its songs and dances can also be a vehicle to warn against life’s dangers, or depict intimate moments where the saris are wet and the bodies can touch. And the Bollywood film industry too is progressively moving away from a sanitized depiction.

Photo of women throwing petals and colored powders as part of ​Holi celebrations in Vrindavan, India, on March 15

Holi celebrations in Vrindavan, India, on March 15

*Rachel Dwyer

My first Holi in India was not an enjoyable one.

Amritsar. 1990. I’d missed the train to Pakistan — seriously... — so I took a three-wheeler to the border at Wagah. Although the driver was somewhat anxious, the fare was too good for him to turn down.

Ignored by lurking terrorists (were there really any?), we did astonish several jawans soldiers crouched behind their sandbagged posts, but were soon hit, inevitably, by a carrier bag of cold water, the rest of the journey being bumpy, chilly and soggy.


Holi is often called the "festival of colours", but this is only one aspect of its core components.

A bonafide carnival at heart

It’s a spring festival celebration that varies across India, even going by different names.

Holi brings together different stories, the key one being of Vishnu protecting his devotee, Prahlad, by burning his murderous aunt, Holika, and, then taking the form of Narasimha, to kill Prahlad’s father, King Hiranyakashipu. But for many, the festival is dominated by the Braj celebrations of the love of Radha and Krishna.

The festival in Braj shows a true carnival in the inversion of the hierarchical order of society — caste, age, gender, social status — in a way which enforces the hierarchy as it is not chaos but a precise order of inversion.

The flinging of mud and dung feature alongside colored powders and water: All representing fertility and spring.

Holi allows some license for contact, wet saris, touching bodies ...

There is also a very aesthetically refined celebration, usually associated with Krishna, in art, poetry, songs and food, notably gujiyas. The more sanitized version is the form of Holi which normally makes it into films, where Holi features in song and dance sequences which are usually public events which extend beyond the family circle.

People throw water or use pichkaris, large syringe-like water pistols, to spray colored water, while also throwing and smearing each other with colored powder (this is based on the poetic trope that dark-skinned Krishna changes color with light-skinned Radha).

The songs allow some license for contact, wet saris, touching bodies and so on, which otherwise was restricted in films as it was in real life.

Songs and dances of celebration

The Holi songs serve many other functions in film. Sometimes the focus is the fun: So, in "Are ja re hat natkhat"(Navrang, 1959), Sandhya dances when an elephant also joins her to provide immense entertainment as the pichkaris spray away.

The whole village comes together to celebrate in "Holi aayi re Kanhayi" (Mother India, 1957), which, despite the lyrics’ reference to the story of Krishna in Braj is set between giant statues of Shiva and Nandi in what seems to be a temple complex. The villages dress in Gujarati costumes and dance in the round.

The song "Holi ke din dil khil jaate hain"in Sholay, 1975 shows the village celebrating, the dance led by Basanti (Hema Malini), just before armed robbers attack. While Veeru (Dharmendra) and Basanti dance, Jai (Amitabh) watches Radha (Jaya Bachchan) who keeps her distance from the celebrations as her widow status means she does not participate in Holi.

However, in "Aaj na chodenge" (Kati Patang, 1971), Madhu (Asha Parekh) is wearing widow’s white as she is pretending to be Poonam, and sings of her sorrow at Holi, but Kamal (Rajesh Khanna) sprays her with colour.

"Are ja re hat natkhat" — Navrang, 1959

Warning of life's dangers

A more recent depiction of Holi shows it not as a public festival which unites villagers as one family but as a private occasion in someone’s garden. In Baghban (2003), Amitabh Bachchan and Hema Malini join again as Raj and Pooja in "Hori khele Raghuveera", one of the few times that the family celebrates together in the film centered on duties and responsibilities.

The fun of Holi allows Raj (Shah Rukh Khan) to put a tika on Narayan Sharma (Amitabh) in Mohabbatein (2000), as the latter yields to the plea to allow students to celebrate Holi, while in "Balam pichkari’" (Yeh Jawaani Hai Deewani, 2013), Naina (Deepika) comes to life and impresses Bunny (Ranbir Kapoor).

The grimmest Holi in Hindi film is in Damini (1993) when Damini (Meenakshi Sheshadri) sees her brother-in-law and his friends gang-rape their maid.

The danger of Holi is also seen on the Holi sequences of Yash Chopra. These are private celebrations of Holi in gardens which present two different dangers. The first is "Ang se ang lagana" (Darr, 1993), where Rahul who is stalking Kiran (Juhi Chawla) gets into the family’s celebrations as part of a band. The first shot of the film is the dafli tambourine played by Vijay (Anupam Kher) as the couples celebrate, transferring color on to one another by hugging.

But it is Rahul’s dhol drum playing which intrudes into song dialogues between Kiran and her fiancé Sunil (Sunny Deol) that highlight his invasion of the family’s space and his insertion of himself between the couple as he manages to rub color onto Kiran.

"Ang se ang lagana" — Darr, 1993

A private affair

In Silsila (1981), Amit (Amitabh) and Chandni (Rekha) say that they didn’t marry the person they loved. When Amit begins to sing (in his own voice), he is so stoned on bhang that he sings to and dances with Chandni in ways that clearly show their love for each other. Their spouses look on with increasing dismay, then horror as his meaning becomes more obvious when he sings that the lover gets all the fun while the husband looks on.

Chandni’s awkwardness begins to fade as she too shows her love for Amit, laughing as he showers her with flowers, lies in her lap until they finally unite in an embrace under her dupatta shawl. The song is a turning point in the plot as all the characters are now aware of what we, the audience, already knew, namely that Amit and Chandni’s love did not stop when they married others.

Holi has become even more of a private affair in Padmaavat (2018), where the king and queen celebrate Holi alone in a world of beige and gold hyper-romance, as she smears color on his feet. Meanwhile, Khilji dips his face in saffron powder to join in the celebrations.

In Braj, the celebration of Holi lasts until Rang Panchami, a day for reconciliation and new beginnings. I wish everyone a happy and colorful Holi.

*Rachel Dwyer is professor emerita of Indian culture and cinema at SOAS, University of London.

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