August 21, 2015
PARIS â€" Weâ€™re patient with dyslexics. Amused by people who have no sense of direction. Understanding toward the color blind. But thereâ€™s no compassion for a person who canâ€™t recognize faces, who encounters someone on the street, for example, and doesn't realize that they've actually met before.
Instead, we interpret the person as being haughty, a bit snobbish perhaps. We recognize them, so they should be able to recognize us. Shouldn't they?
Not if the person has prosopagnosia, or face blindness, which is all the more perplexing given that most sufferers aren't fully aware of the handicap until quite late in life. At school, no one tests if children can recognize faces. And so the prosopagnosists, as they're called, often feel guilty. â€œI blamed myself," a journalist who prefers to remain anonymous confides. "It was as if I wasn't interested in other people, while in reality I am someone whoâ€™s interested in others."
Put yourself in their shoes. How could they imagine that, for most people, the brain has this exceptional ability to distinguish, in less than a second, a familiar face from thousands of others, all fitted with noses, two eyes and a mouth?
In an attempt to understand this superpower â€" located in the right occipitotemporal area of the brain â€" researchers are studying those who donâ€™t have it. They make a distinction between prosopagnosia that can appear after brain damage, which can lead to a total loss of the ability to recognize familiar faces, even those of spouses or children, and the congenital form, which is characterized by difficulties with facial recognition rather than total inability.
To date there has only been limited research into the condition. One of the exceptions, as a 2006 study carried out by German students, suggests that prosopagnosia may affect 2.5% of the world's population.
Jane Goodall, the primate specialist, is a prosopagnosist. Her problems extend to monkey faces too, though at least they donâ€™t get ticked off as easily. When Goodall became aware of the atypical nature of her difficulties, she got in touch with the British neurologist Oliver Sacks. He told her not only that the handicap has a name, but that he too suffers from it. The neurologist even wrote about the condition in his book The Mindâ€™s Eye (2010).
Putting a name to her problem didnâ€™t stop Jane Goodall from feeling guilty. â€œItâ€™s humiliating because most people think I invent something elaborate as an excuse for not recognizing them because Iâ€™m not interested in them,â€ she says in her autobiography.
To compensate, Goodall pretends to know everybody and apologizes if someone tells her that in fact they haven't met before. â€œThis leads to strange situations, but itâ€™s not worse than the other way around,â€ she says.
Another well known person with face blindness is French radio and television commentator Philippe Vandel, who says he has printed the Wikipedia page about prosopagnosia more than 20 times to share with people who don't believe the condition really exists.
In shows in which he takes part, Vandel notes the location of each person around the table. â€œIn the world of television, this handicap is hard to manage! Iâ€™m often surrounded by people full of themselves who donâ€™t understand that you canâ€™t recognize them," he says. "And I find myself in parties with all these guys dressed in dark suits with white shirts and no ties.â€
Fads donâ€™t help prosopagnosists. For our anonymous journalist, the world is filled with lightly-bearded, dark-haired men, all interchangeable. At work, sheâ€™s given up scrutinizing people (â€œitâ€™s no useâ€), but compensates for her face blindness by scribbling little clues in her reporter notebooks such as â€œbig nose" or "blue sweater." â€œRestaurant waiter, nightclub bouncer, ticket inspectorâ€¦ Iâ€™ll never be able to do any of these jobs,â€ she says.
Prosopagnosists often say some people are easier to recognize than others. Thomas Busigny, a neuropsychologist at the neurology unit of the Toulouse university hospital, confirms. â€œItâ€™s a question of prototypia: from the average gap between the eyes to the size of the eye, faces vary more or less from an average,â€ says Busigny, who has spent a decade studying face blindness.
â€œThe one I prefer is the French soccer player Ribéry,â€ says Philippe Vandel, who generally has difficulty following soccer matches. â€œAs soon as a player changes his hairstyle, I donâ€™t recognize him anymore.â€ Franck Ribéry is easier to recognize because has noticeable facial scars caused by a car accident he suffered as a a small child.
Concentrating on detail is typical of the compensatory strategies deployed by prosopagnosists. Jane Goodall says she looks for moles, even with chimpanzees. "These people pay close attention to peripheral signs,â€ says Busigny. â€œThey notice the way people walk, look at their jewelry, hairstyles, clothes, handbags. One of my patients recognizes people thanks to their dogs or their cars.â€
"I prefer staying at home"
For all their trouble recognizing faces, prosopagnosists have no trouble identifying voices. â€œMy patients, who would never recognize me in the street, recognize me if I phone them,â€ Busigny observes.
Another well-known prosopagnosist is Bruno Patino, one of the leaders of France's state broadcaster France Télévisions, juggles with all sorts of strategies. When he was younger, he used to entertain groups of children, so he came up with cards with their favorite phrases. At work, he first printed out a chart with photographs of everybody, which he examined every morning (â€œit was no useâ€). Then, he memorized the office numbers.
But such tricks donâ€™t always work: at a taxi station, he mistook his father-in-law for a colleague. Often, relatives have to adapt.
Perhaps the best known prosopagnosist is U.S. film actor Brad Pitt, who made his face blindness â€œcoming-outâ€ in a recent interview with the magazine Esquire: â€œThatâ€™s why I stay at home,â€ he said.
It's difficult to imagine how Pitt gets by in Hollywood parties. And yet for a prosopagnosist, acting in a movie, with all of its similar-looking characters and constant costume changes, is probably easier than watching one.
This leading French daily newspaper Le Monde ("The World") was founded in December 1944 in the aftermath of World War II. Today, it is distributed in 120 countries. In late 2010, a trio formed by Pierre Berge, Xavier Niel and Matthieu Pigasse took a controlling 64.5% stake in the newspaper.
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A neo-Nazi has been buried in the former grave of a Jewish musicologist Max Friedlaender – not an oversight, but a deliberate provocation. This is just one more example of antisemitism on the rise in Germany, and society's inability to respond.
Eva Marie Kogel
October 24, 2021
BERLIN — If you want to check the state of your society, there's a simple test: as the U.S. High Commissioner for Germany, John Jay McCloy, said in 1949, the touchstone for a democracy is the well-being of Jews. This litmus test is still relevant today. And it seems Germany would not pass.
Incidents are piling up. Most recently, groups of neo-Nazis from across the country traveled to a church near Berlin for the funeral of a well-known far-right figure. He was buried in the former grave of Jewish musicologist Max Friedlaender, a gravesite chosen deliberately by the right-wing extremists.
The incident at the cemetery
They intentionally chose a Jewish grave as an act of provocation, trying to gain maximum publicity for this act of desecration. And the cemetery authorities at the graveyard in Stahnsdorf fell for it. The church issued an immediate apology, calling it a "terrible mistake" and saying they "must immediately see whether and what we can undo."
There are so many incidents that get little to no media attention.
It's unfathomable that this burial was allowed to take place at all, but now the cemetery authorities need to make a decision quickly about how to put things right. Otherwise, the grave may well become a pilgrimage site for Holocaust deniers and antisemites.
The incident has garnered attention in the international press and it will live long in the memory. Like the case of singer-songwriter Gil Ofarim, who recently claimed he was subjected to antisemitic abuse at a hotel in Leipzig. Details of the crime are still being investigated. But there are so many other incidents that get little to no media attention.
The grave of Jewish musicologist Max Friedlaender
Crimes against Jews are rising
Across all parts of society, antisemitism is on the rise. Until a few years ago, Jewish life was seen as an accepted part of German society. Since the attack on the synagogue in Halle in 2019, the picture has changed: it was a bitter reminder that right-wing terror against Jewish people has a long, unbroken history in Germany.
Stories have abounded about the coronavirus crisis being a Jewish conspiracy; meanwhile, Muslim antisemitism is becoming louder and more forceful. The anti-Israel boycott movement BDS rears its head in every debate on antisemitism, just as left-wing or post-colonial thinking are part of every discussion.
Jewish life needs to be allowed to step out of the shadows.
Since 2015, the number of antisemitic crimes recorded has risen by about a third, to 2,350. But victims only report around 20% of cases. Some choose not to because they've had bad experiences with the police, others because they're afraid of the perpetrators, and still others because they just want to put it behind them. Victims clearly hold out little hope of useful reaction from the state – so crimes go unreported.
And the reality of Jewish life in Germany is a dark one. Sociologists say that Jewish children are living out their "identity under siege." What impact does it have on them when they can only go to nursery under police protection? Or when they hear Holocaust jokes at school?
Germany needs to take its antisemitism seriously
This shows that the country of commemorative services and "stumbling blocks" placed in sidewalks as a memorial to victims of the Nazis has lost its moral compass. To make it point true north again, antisemitism needs to be documented from the perspective of those affected, making it visible to the non-Jewish population. And Jewish life needs to be allowed to step out of the shadows.
That is the first thing. The second is that we need to talk about specifically German forms of antisemitism. For example, the fact that in no other EU country are Jewish people so often confronted about the Israeli government's policies (according to a survey, 41% of German Jews have experienced this, while the EU average is 28%). Projecting the old antisemitism onto the state of Israel offers people a more comfortable target for their arguments.
Our society needs to have more conversations about antisemitism. The test of German democracy, as McCloy called it, starts with taking these concerns seriously and talking about them. We need to have these conversations because it affects all of us. It's about saving our democracy. Before it's too late.
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Die Welt ("The World") is a German daily founded in Hamburg in 1946, and currently owned by the Axel Springer AG company, Europe's largest publishing house. Now based in Berlin, Die Welt is sold in more than 130 countries. A Sunday edition called Welt am Sonntag has been published since 1948.
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