Erotic Appeal, Arabic Roots Help Oud Seduce Europe's Upscale Perfume Market

"Warm, sexy and always a little different," is how perfumer Alberto Morillas describes oud, a pricey oil made from agar wood and its resin. Used for centuries in Arab countries, the perfume ingredient is now also a hit in Europe. If you

Oud la smell nice (Dutova Anastasia)
Oud la smell nice (Dutova Anastasia)


With ancient roots that cost more than gold and legends of Arab aphrodisiacs, a mysterious scent named "oud" has arrived from the east to seduce Europe's top luxury houses.

It was exactly 10 years ago that it was first tucked into the Western market, when M7, an Yves Saint Laurent scent for men was released with a small dose of oud.

"Nobody had used it until then, nobody knew about it," says Alberto Morillas, one of two perfumers who developed M7. "And oud still has something magical about it."

In Arab countries the intense scent has been known for over 2,000 years. Oud oil is made from agar wood and its resin. The wood of agar trees, which grow mainly in the rain forests of Southeast Asia, is not itself particularly valuable. But when their heartwood is wounded, agar trees close the scar with resin.

The best oud comes from resin that has developed a particular mold – the more mold, the stronger the scent and the greater the price: up to 50,000 euros per kilo.

"A trend started in Western Europe about 10 years ago. And oud has really taken off in the last two to three years," says Bodo Kubartz. Kubartz is a perfume expert who wrote Das große Buch vom Parfüm (The Big Book of Perfume) together with Frank J. Schnitzler.

"The oil has something animalistic, something woody about it that at the same time is very modern," says Morillas. "It smells warm and sexy and always a little different. I dream of creating more perfumes with oud."

The available selection of perfumes containing oud has grown over the last 10 years. These include Bond No. 9, launched in 2008 exclusively for Harrods. It continues to be the British department store's top-selling perfume.

Paris perfumer Pierre Montale was inspired by oud during a three-year stint in Saudi Arabia, and has since specialized in oud scents. He offers about 20 varieties. "But many of the big names in perfume have also caught on and launched their own oud scents," says Kubartz, which, he adds, remain customer favorites despite high prices.

The oil is so rare and so hard to get that it is very pricey: 100 milliliters of Bond No. 9 "New York Oud," for example, cost 310 euros. Because of ever greater demand, agar trees are endangered. They used to grow from India to New Guinea, but today have practically disappeared in India, Bangladesh, Thailand and China.

Meanwhile, perfumer Alberto Morillas advises wearers of the precious scent to apply it to the Adam's apple. "That's very important," he says. "Warmth is produced by the vibrations from speaking that makes the smell even more intense."

Read the full article in German by Nicola Erdmann

Photo - Dutova Anastasia

*Newsbites are digest items, not direct translations

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How Thailand's Lèse-Majesté Law Is Used To Stifle All Protest

Once meant to protect the royal family, the century-old law has become a tool for the military-led government in Bangkok to stamp out all dissent. A new report outlines the abuses.

Pro-Democracy protest at The Criminal Court in Bangkok, Thailand

Laura Valentina Cortés Sierra

"We need to reform the institution of the monarchy in Thailand. It is the root of the problem." Those words, from Thai student activist Juthatip Sirikan, are a clear expression of the growing youth-led movement that is challenging the legitimacy of the government and demanding deep political changes in the Southeast Asian nation. Yet those very same words could also send Sirikan to jail.

Thailand's Criminal Code 'Lèse-Majesté' Article 112 imposes jail terms for defaming, insulting, or threatening the monarchy, with sentences of three to 15 years. This law has been present in Thai politics since 1908, though applied sparingly, only when direct verbal or written attacks against members of the royal family.

But after the May 2014 military coup d'état, Thailand experienced the first wave of lèse-majesté arrests, prosecutions, and detentions of at least 127 individuals arrested in a much wider interpretation of the law.

The recent report 'Second Wave: The Return of Lèse-Majesté in Thailand', documents how the Thai government has "used and abused Article 112 of the Criminal Code to target pro-democracy activists and protesters in relation to their online political expression and participation in peaceful pro-democracy demonstrations."

Criticism of any 'royal project'

The investigation shows 124 individuals, including at least eight minors, have been charged with lèse-majesté between November 2020 and August 2021. Nineteen of them served jail time. The new wave of charges is cited as a response to the rising pro-democracy protests across Thailand over the past year.

Juthatip Sirikan explains that the law is now being applied in such a broad way that people are not allowed to question government budgets and expenditure if they have any relationship with the royal family, which stifles criticism of the most basic government decision-making since there are an estimated 5,000 ongoing "royal" projects. "Article 112 of lèse-majesté could be the key (factor) in Thailand's political problems" the young activist argues.

In 2020 the Move Forward opposition party questioned royal spending paid by government departments, including nearly 3 billion baht (89,874,174 USD) from the Defense Ministry and Thai police for royal security, and 7 billion baht budgeted for royal development projects, as well as 38 planes and helicopters for the monarchy. Previously, on June 16, 2018, it was revealed that Thailand's Crown Property Bureau transferred its entire portfolio to the new King Maha Vajiralongkorn.

photo of graffiti of 112 crossed out on sidewalk

Protestors In Bangkok Call For Political Prisoner Release

Peerapon Boonyakiat/SOPA Images via ZUMA Wire

Freedom of speech at stake

"Article 112 shuts down all freedom of speech in this country", says Sirikan. "Even the political parties fear to touch the subject, so it blocks most things. This country cannot move anywhere if we still have this law."

The student activist herself was charged with lèse-majesté in September 2020, after simply citing a list of public documents that refer to royal family expenditure. Sirikan comes from a family that has faced the consequences of decades of political repression. Her grandfather, Tiang Sirikhan was a journalist and politician who openly protested against Thailand's involvement in World War II. He was accused of being a Communist and abducted in 1952. According to Sirikhan's family, he was killed by the state.

The new report was conducted by The International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH), Thai Lawyer for Human Rights (TLHR), and Internet Law Reform Dialogue (iLaw). It accuses Thai authorities of an increasingly broad interpretation of Article 112, to the point of "absurdity," including charges against people for criticizing the government's COVID-19 vaccine management, wearing crop tops, insulting the previous monarch, or quoting a United Nations statement about Article 112.

Juthatip Sirikan speaks in front of democracy monument.

Shift to social media

While in the past the Article was only used against people who spoke about the royals, it's now being used as an alibi for more general political repression — which has also spurred more open campaigning to abolish it. Sirikan recounts recent cases of police charging people for spreading paint near the picture of the king during a protest, or even just for having a picture of the king as phone wallpaper.

The more than a century-old law is now largely playing out online, where much of today's protest takes place in Thailand. Sirikan says people are willing to go further on social media to expose information such as how the king intervenes in politics and the monarchy's accumulation of wealth, information the mainstream media rarely reports on them.

Not surprisingly, however, social media is heavily monitored and the military is involved in Intelligence operations and cyber attacks against human rights defenders and critics of any kind. In October 2020, Twitter took down 926 accounts, linked to the army and the government, which promoted themselves and attacked political opposition, and this June, Google removed two Maps with pictures, names, and addresses, of more than 400 people who were accused of insulting the Thai monarchy. "They are trying to control the internet as well," Sirikan says. "They are trying to censor every content that they find a threat".

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