Sources

Bella Mia - Italy Seduces The World But Can't Bear The Sight Of Itself

Calling the past...
Calling the past...
Massimo Gramellini

TURIN - So it’s like this: after having solved a mystery involving the Pope in Rome and the esoteric world of Leonardo da Vinci in Paris, the new Dan Brown thriller will be set in the streets of Florence, as well as in the pages of Dante’s Inferno.

Dan Brown is no master of style, but is an undeniable authority in fiction. He keeps putting our country in the backdrop of his books because he knows that all over the world, Italy sells. Not today’s Italy, obviously, which has become a mediocre Western suburb like so many others, but the Italy of the past -- that of the Renaissance and the ancient Roman empire. Those, in fact, were the only two moments in history when Italy was the driving force of humanity.

At this point, the only question that jumps out is why? Why, if Italy equals bestseller, should "the others" be the only ones to make money off of Italian culture? Why do the legends of Italian history fascinate foreign writers and directors, but not the Italians themselves?

Beyond Roberto expand=1] Benigni's theatrical readings of Dante, which are a wonderful exception but not exportable, why did Inferno inspire a whole book for Dan Brown and not Italian best-selling novelist Sandro Veronesi (a true and talented Tuscan), who at least could tell the adventures of footballer Paolo Pulici or Count Cavour, the first Prime Minister of a unified Italy? Why is the miniseries on the Borgia family made by the Irishman Neil Jordan and not by a descendent of Macchiavelli? Why was the story of the "Gladiator" told by Ridley Scott and not by the Oscar-winning Giuseppe Tornatore? Even the archeological writer Valerio Massimo Manfredi, despite some sporadic incursions with the Romans, prefers to focus his books on the sagas of the Greeks, Alexander the Great and Ulysses.

If the tomb of General Maximus Decimus Meridius -- played by Russell Crowe in Gladiator -- discovered three years ago along the ancient Via Flaminia roadway leading to Rome, was to become a tourist attraction, then it would be because of the efforts of foreigners who collected the necessary funds for the restoration rather than the helpless and uninterested Ministry of Culture, which should be the equivalent to the oil ministry in Saudi Arabia, but is considered a lowly posting among Italian political insiders.

But this stubborn refusal by the public to give the world the image of an Italy it likes is not just a matter for the artists and the politicians. It touches all of us. A good psychoanalyst would have plenty of material to study here in Italy. An entire nation layed out on the shrink's couch, proudly declaring its refusal to be like others want it to be, condemning itself to the margins of history. For this reason, the past that fascinates and stimulates curiosity and admiration in Chinese tourists as well as American best-sellers prompts such a lazy and indifferent air. Why are we refusing to be the huge open air museum, filled with the restaurants and themed shops that the world wants us to be? Maybe it’s a kind of existential short-sightedness.

Ancient Rome and the Renaissance, bewitching to explore by anyone who lives on the other side of the sea, but those who live in the middle of it are reduced to discounted scenarios: Bernini’s piazzas are like car parks for people and the Colosseum is just a continuous traffic jam. Or is it the schools that make it something laborious to study, turning something that should be glorious into boring homework? But maybe the short-sightedness has nothing to do with school: it’s the Italians who, for some inexplicable reason, are embarrassed by and keep trying to flee from the clichés -- sun, ruins, art and good food -- that the world wants to attach to us, to love and envy us.

Italy, the universal capital of beauty and pleasure, is the only country that can escape the peripheral destiny that awaits a tired Europe after 2,000 years of world leadership. But to do it would mean finally accepting the memory of itself. More than an industrial overhaul, Italy requires a psychological one. It is a country that needs a grand and ancient dream -- but meanwhile in Rome, they're just talking about the economy.

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Future

7 Ways The Pandemic May Change The Airline Industry For Good

Will flying be greener? More comfortable? Less frequent? As the world eyes a post-COVID reality, we look at ways the airline industry has been changing through a pandemic that has devastated air travel.

Ready for (a different kind of) takeoff?

Carl-Johan Karlsson

It's hard to overstate the damage the pandemic has had on the airline industry, with global revenues dropping by 40% in 2020 and dozens of airlines around the world filing for bankruptcy. One moment last year when the gravity became particularly apparent was when Asian carriers (in countries with low COVID-19 rates) began offering "flights to nowhere" — starting and ending at the same airport as a way to earn some cash from would-be travelers who missed the in-flight experience.

More than a year later today, experts believe that air traffic won't return to normal levels until 2024.


But beyond the financial woes, the unprecedented slowdown in air travel may bring some silver linings as key aspects of the industry are bound to change once back in full spin, with some longer-term effects on aviation already emerging. Here are some major transformations to expect in the coming years:

Cleaner aviation fuel

The U.S. administration of President Joe Biden and the airline industry recently agreed to the ambitious goal of replacing all jet fuel with sustainable alternatives by 2050. Already in a decade, the U.S. aims to produce three billion gallons of sustainable fuel — about one-tenth of current total use — from waste, plants and other organic matter.

While greening the world's road transport has long been at the top of the climate agenda, aviation is not even included under the Paris Agreement. But with air travel responsible for roughly 12% of all CO2 emissions from transport, and stricter international regulation on the horizon, the industry is increasingly seeking sustainable alternatives to petroleum-based fuel.

Fees imposed on the airline industry should be funneled into a climate fund.

In Germany, state broadcaster Deutsche Welle reports that the world's first factory producing CO2-neutral kerosene recently started operations in the town of Wertle, in Lower Saxony. The plant, for which Lufthansa is set to become the pilot customer, will produce CO2-neutral kerosene through a circular production cycle incorporating sustainable and green energy sources and raw materials. Energy is supplied through wind turbines from the surrounding area, while the fuel's main ingredients are water and waste-generated CO2 coming from a nearby biogas plant.

Farther north, Norwegian Air Shuttle has recently submitted a recommendation to the government that fees imposed on the airline industry should be funneled into a climate fund aimed at developing cleaner aviation fuel, according to Norwegian news site E24. The airline also suggested that the government significantly reduce the tax burden on the industry over a longer period to allow airlines to recover from the pandemic.

Black-and-white photo of an ariplane shot from below flying across the sky and leaving condensation trails

High-flying ambitions for the sector

Joel & Jasmin Førestbird

Hydrogen and electrification

Some airline manufacturers are betting on hydrogen, with research suggesting that the abundant resource has the potential to match the flight distances and payload of a current fossil-fuel aircraft. If derived from renewable resources like sun and wind power, hydrogen — with an energy-density almost three times that of gasoline or diesel — could work as a fully sustainable aviation fuel that emits only water.

One example comes out of California, where fuel-cell specialist HyPoint has entered a partnership with Pennsylvania-based Piasecki Aircraft Corporation to manufacture 650-kilowatt hydrogen fuel cell systems for aircrafts. According to HyPoint, the system — scheduled for commercial availability product by 2025 — will have four times the energy density of existing lithium-ion batteries and double the specific power of existing hydrogen fuel-cell systems.

Meanwhile, Rolls-Royce is looking to smash the speed record of electrical flights with a newly designed 23-foot-long model. Christened the Spirit of Innovation, the small plane took off for the first time earlier this month and successfully managed a 15-minute long test flight. However, the company has announced plans to fly the machine faster than 300 mph (480 km/h) before the year is out, and also to sell similar propulsion systems to companies developing electrical air taxis or small commuter planes.

New aircraft designs

Airlines are also upgrading aircraft design to become more eco-friendly. Air France just received its first upgrade of a single-aisle, medium-haul aircraft in 33 years. Fleet director Nicolas Bertrand told French daily Les Echos that the new A220 — that will replace the old A320 model — will reduce operating costs by 10%, fuel consumption and CO2 emissions by 20% and noise footprint by 34%.

International first class will be very nearly a thing of the past.

The pandemic has also ushered in a new era of consumer demand where privacy and personal space is put above luxury. The retirement of older aircraft caused by COVID-19 means that international first class — already in steady decline over the last decades — will be very nearly a thing of the past. Instead, airplane manufacturers around the world (including Delta, China Eastern, JetBlue, British Airways and Shanghai Airlines) are betting on a new generation of super-business minisuites where passengers have a privacy door. The idea, which was introduced by Qatar Airways in 2017, is to offer more personal space than in regular business class but without the lavishness of first class.

Aerial view of Rome's Fiumicino airport

Aerial view of Rome's Fiumicino airport

commons.wikimedia.org

Hygiene rankings  

Rome's Fiumicino Airport has become the first in the world to earn "the COVID-19 5-Star Airport Rating" from Skytrax, an international airline and airport review and ranking site, Italian daily La Repubblica reports. Skytrax, which publishes a yearly annual ranking of the world's best airports and issues the World Airport Awards, this year created a second list to specifically call out airports with the best health and hygiene standards.

Smoother check-in

​The pandemic has also accelerated the shift towards contactless traveling, with more airports harnessing the power of biometrics — such as facial recognition or fever screening — to reduce touchpoints and human contact. Similar technology can also be used to more efficiently scan physical objects, such as explosive detection. Ultimately, passengers will be able to "check-in" and go through a security screening anywhere at the airports, removing queues and bottlenecks.

Data privacy issues

​However, as pointed out in Canadian publication The Lawyer's Daily, increased use of AI and biometrics also means increased privacy concerns. For example, health and hygiene measures like digital vaccine passports also mean that airports can collect data on who has been vaccinated and the type of vaccine used.

Photo of planes at Auckland airport, New Zealand

Auckland Airport, New Zealand

Douglas Bagg

The billion-dollar question: Will we fly less?

At the end of the day, even with all these (mostly positive) changes that we've seen take shape over the past 18 months, the industry faces major uncertainty about whether air travel will ever return to the pre-COVID levels. Not only are people wary about being in crowded and closed airplanes, but the worth of long-distance business travel in particular is being questioned as many have seen that meetings can function remotely, via Zoom and other online apps.

Trying to forecast the future, experts point to the years following the 9/11 terrorist attacks as at least a partial blueprint for what a recovery might look like in the years ahead. Twenty years ago, as passenger enthusiasm for flying waned amid security fears following the attacks, airlines were forced to cancel flights and put planes into storage.

40% of Swedes intend to travel less

According to McKinsey, leisure trips and visits to family and friends rebounded faster than business flights, which took four years to return to pre-crisis levels in the UK. This time too, business travel is expected to lag, with the consulting firm estimating only 80% recovery of pre-pandemic levels by 2024.

But the COVID-19 crisis also came at a time when passengers were already rethinking their travel habits due to climate concerns, while worldwide lockdowns have ushered in a new era of remote working. In Sweden, a survey by the country's largest research company shows that 40% of the population intend to travel less even after the pandemic ends. Similarly in the UK, nearly 60% of adults said during the spring they intended to fly less after being vaccinated against COVID-19 — with climate change cited as a top reason for people wanting to reduce their number of flights, according to research by the University of Bristol.

At the same time, major companies are increasingly forced to face the music of the environmental movement, with several corporations rolling out climate targets over the last few years. Today, five of the 10 biggest buyers of corporate air travel in the US are technology companies: Amazon, IBM, Google, Apple and Microsoft, according to Taipei Times, all of which have set individual targets for environmental stewardship. As such, the era of flying across the Atlantic for a two-hour executive meeting is likely in its dying days.

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