March 13, 2020
SALON-DE-PROVENCE — For years, Adèle had always "pushed back time", making decisions at the last minute. After receiving her high school diploma at the prestigious Parisian high school Lycée Henri IV, the always "overloaded" student made a rather surprising life choice: She began training as a shepherd.
After an internship in the Aspe valley in the region of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, something "clicked" and the now 21-year-old has decided to join the Le Merle training center in Salon-de-Provence (Bouches-du-Rhône), one of three French institutions offering diploma courses in shepherding.
Created in 1930 as part of the Agro Institute, Le Merle — which has an agricultural area of 400 hectares — issues a professional agricultural certificate in "transhumance shepherding". Students are trained over a one-year period that follows the natural cycle of the sheep from birth to summer pasture, the four-month period in which the herds traverse the high mountain pastures. There, they learn the basics of the trade: care, feeding, driving herding dogs, shearing, mapping.
Among the 15 students each year, the vast majority are retraining themselves professionally. "Forty years ago, it was considered a bit like the village idiot's trade," Frédéric Laurent, educational manager of the training center, says with a smile. "But today, it attracts a primarily urban crowd."
Living against the grain.
Interested in environmental protection and animal welfare, these men and women have decided to take a step back, living against the grain of a society they consider too superficial. Laurent, who receives an average of 35 applications per year, notes that there's just one farmer's son out of this year's 15 trainees. To determine their motivation, candidates must present before a jury. "We question them about their professional aspirations," he explained. "Many say they love nature but that is not enough."
Shepherds have been in great demand since the reappearance of the wolf in and around the nearby Mercantour national park in the early 1990s. Breeders tend to be too busy and increasingly look for employees to accompany the sheep on summer pastures. The shepherd, joined by dogs, watches over and cares for hundreds of animals. According to Laurent, 500,000 ewes migrate through the region each year. "Our students have absolutely no problem finding work," he says. Over the past 20 years, 70% of Le Merle graduates have entered the sector, including 20% as breeders.
That morning, the students gathered in a classroom to follow the teaching of Laure Eon, a veterinarian, who lists infections that are likely to affect sheep. The room takes a summer camp vibe and each student shares their comments. "Are the drugs reimbursed by social security?" one student asks, provoking a general laugh. "I do believe they can benefit from CMU (universal health coverage)," laughs a student and former restaurant owner in another life.
The silence builds.
Adel Alexandre had long-imagined himself as a school teacher, but at 31 and after two failed exams, he decided to change lanes. A grandson of Tunisian farmers who was raised in Marseille, Alexandre longs to set up an educational farm in an urban environment. In the "search for authenticity," he wants to learn the basics of the shepherd profession, "a job that allows you to have a better view on society. Working with animals teaches you empathy and patience."
The summer is the most awaited and feared moment of the training, a stage in which the students will be able to put into practice the knowledge they have accumulated throughout the year. They can go out alone or accompanied. Some cabins are so isolated that the shepherds must be transported by helicopter. Alexandre admits that this crucial moment makes him anxious. "The great distances are very difficult, even if I get along very well with the sheep."
Adèle says she prefers to be far away from everything. "You learn a lot when you're alone," she says. To help students understand the loneliness, their teachers impart some advice, such as the need to maintain a rhythm in matters of hygiene and food, and the importance of not allowing themselves to fall into alcoholism.
At the end of the training, students often hope to accumulate shorter experiences, "to the chagrin of the breeders, who want to recruit them year-round," according to the educational manager. This is the case of 19-year-old Vincent. Following a road trip by bicycle and volunteering with the homeless, the shepherd-in-training wants to become seasonal. He is particularly interested in the job of accompanying Mauritanian shepherds in transhumance all the way to Senegal in five months. As someone who likes to live in rhythm with the sheep, he says that he "never felt as good as up there. The silence, it builds."
Aymeric, 48, graduated in 2018 after spending eight years working as an engineer for Alstom in New York and Mexico. Three years ago, he'd returned to France to "reconnect" with his roots and, intrigued by discussions surrounding the presence of wolves in the region, decided to become a shepherd.
Then there is 31-year-old Armand, who wants to eventually settle down as a breeder and work with wool. With a rich professional background already that includes 15 years at Airbus and two summer pastures, this former maintenance technician is now tied to the shepherd contract that earns 1,500 euro per month. As a seasonal worker, he can hope to earn 2,500 euro per month in the summer. Comparing the experience to his past work routine, he concludes: "Before I was a sheep. Today, I am a shepherd."
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Terje Bendiksby/NTB Scanpix/ZUMA
October 15, 2021
The bow-and-arrow murder of five people in the small Norwegian city of Kongsberg this week was particularly chilling for the primitive choice of weapon. And police are now saying the attack Wednesday night is likely to be labeled an act of terrorism.
Still, even though the suspect is a Danish-born convert to Islam, police are still determining the motive. Espen Andersen Bråthen, a 37-year-old Danish national, is previously known to the police, both for reports of radicalization, as well as erratic behavior unrelated to religion.
Indeed, it remains unclear whether religious beliefs were behind the killings. In an interview with Swedish daily Dagens Nyheter, police attorney Ann Iren Svane Mathiassens said Bråthen has already confessed to the crimes, giving a detailed account of the events during a three-hour interrogation on Thursday, but motives are yet to be determined.
Investigated as terrorism
Regardless, the murders are likely to be labeled an act of terror – mainly as the victims appear to have been randomly chosen, and were killed both in public places and inside their homes.
Mathiassens also said Bråthen will undergo a comprehensive forensic psychiatric examination, which is also a central aspect of the ongoing investigation, according to a police press conference on Friday afternoon. Bråthen will be held in custody for at least four weeks, two of which will be in isolation, and will according to a police spokesperson be moved to a psychiatric unit as soon as possible.
Witnesses have since described him as unstable and a loner.
Police received reports last year concerning potential radicalization. In 2017, Bråthen published two videos on Youtube, one in English and one in Norwegian, announcing that he's now a Muslim and describing himself as a "messenger." The year prior, he made several visits to the city's only mosque, where he said he'd received a message from above that he wished to share with the world.
Previous criminal history
In 2012, he was convicted of aggravated theft and drug offenses, and in May last year, a restraining order was issued after Bråthen entered his parents house with a revolver, threatening to kill his father.
The mosque's chairman Oussama Tlili remembers Bråthen's first visit well, as it's rare to meet Scandinavian converts. Still, he didn't believe there was any danger and saw no reason to notify the police. Tlili's impression was rather that the man was unwell mentally, and needed help.
According to a former neighbor, Bråthen often acted erratically. During the two years she lived in the house next to him — only 50 meters from the grocery store where the attacks began — the man several times barked at her like a dog, threw trash in the streets to then pick it up, and spouted racist comments to her friend. Several other witnesses have since described him as unstable and a loner.
The man used a bow and arrow to carry the attack
Norway, with one of the world's lowest crime rates, is still shaken from the attack — and also questioning what allowed the killer to hunt down and kill even after police were on the scene.
The first reports came around 6 p.m. on Wednesday that a man armed with bow and arrow was shooting inside a grocery store. Only minutes after, the police spotted the suspect; he fired several times against the patrol and then disappeared while reinforcements arrived.
The attack has also fueled a long-existing debate over whether Norwegian police should carry firearms
In the more than 30 minutes that followed before the arrest, four women and one man were killed by arrows and two other weapons — though police have yet to disclose the other arms, daily Aftenposten reports. The sleepy city's 27,000 inhabitants are left wondering how the man managed to evade a full 22 police patrols, and why reports of his radicalization weren't taken more seriously.
With five people killed and three more injured, Wednesday's killing spree is the worst attack in Norway since far-right extremist Anders Breivik massacred 77 people on the island of Utøya a decade ago.
As questions mount over the police response to the attack, with reports suggesting all five people died after law enforcement made first contact with the suspect, local police have said it's willing to submit the information needed to the Bureau of Investigation to start a probe into their conduct. Police confirmed they had fired warning shots in connection to the arrest which, under Norwegian law, often already provides a basis for an assessment.
Wednesday's bloodbath has also fueled a long-existing debate over whether Norwegian police should carry firearms — the small country being one of only 19 globally where law enforcement officers are typically unarmed, though may have access to guns and rifles in certain circumstances.
Magnus Ranstorp, a terrorism expert and professor at the Swedish Defence University, noted that police in similar neighboring countries like Sweden and Denmark carry firearms. "I struggle to understand why Norwegian police are not armed all the time," Ranstorp told Norwegian daily VG. "The lesson from Utøya is that the police must react quickly and directly respond to a perpetrator during a life-threatening incident."
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Dagens Nyheter (DN) is a Swedish daily founded in 1864. The newspaper is owned by the Bonnier Group â€” a Swedish media group of 175 companies operating in 16 countries. Opinion leaders often choose Dagens Nyheter as the venue for publishing major opinion editorials. The stated position of the editorial page is "independently liberal."
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