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Amsterdam Forced Holocaust Survivors To Pay Back Taxes



AMSTERDAM - Of the 110,000 Jews deported from the Netherlands during World War II, only 6,000 returned home from the concentration camps. The survivors mostly found that their homes had been destroyed, or had been taken possession of by non-Jews.

It was then, if they were from Amsterdam, that the municipal letters started to arrive.

From 1945 to 1947, the city of Amsterdam sent Holocaust survivors reminders for unpaid taxes and other unpaid bills from the war years. Unlike other Dutch cities, Amsterdam made no allowances for the reasons that the returnees had not paid up.

There was no public debate, although the newspaper Het Parool did report on the letters in 1948.

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Anne Frank's house in Amsterdam Wikipedia

It is only now, 65 years later, that the way the city dealt with the issue is receiving public attention. Michiel Mulder of the Dutch Labor Party (Partij van de Arbeid) called the way returning Jews were dealt with a "disgrace." Amsterdam Mayor Eberhared van der Laan stated that the local government at the time had acted “formalistically, bureaucratically and coldly,” showing no "empathy for the victims."

The Times of Israel ran a story titled "Amsterdam fined, taxed Holocaust survivors in hiding" illustrated with a photo of Anne Frank.

The revelations are particularly embarrassing because they only came to light by accident during the digitizing of city archives. Art historian Charlotte van den Berg told the Süddeutsche Zeitung she found documents relating to the matter "buried under other files."

The documents included replies received from Jews taking issue with the payment demands or asking for extensions of the due dates for payments. “There were late fees being charged for late payment,” van den Berg said.

When she notified authorities about what she’d found, there was some notice taken but the archives department was more interested in staying on schedule with the digitizing project than worrying about 65-yer-old letters. Original documents were to be destroyed after the digitizing was completed. So van den Berg contacted Het Parool.

One of the spokespersons for those involved and their descendants is Ronny Naftaniel, the son of a Holocaust survivor and director of the Center for Information and Documentation Israel in the Netherlands. He urged swift clarification. While he did not mention compensation payments, he qualified as "shocking" that the city of Amsterdam had even claimed back-payments for local real estate taxes and public utilities.

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Brazil's Evangelical Surge Threatens Survival Of Native Afro-Brazilian Faith

Followers of the Afro-Brazilian Umbanda religion in four traditional communities in the country’s northeast are resisting pressure to convert to evangelical Christianity.

image of Abel José, an Umbanda priest

Abel José, an Umbanda priest

Agencia Publica
Géssica Amorim

Among a host of images of saints and Afro-Brazilian divinities known as orixás, Abel José, 42, an Umbanda priest, lights some candles, picks up his protective beads and adjusts the straw hat that sits atop his head. He is preparing to treat four people from neighboring villages who have come to his house in search of spiritual help and treatment for health ailments.

The meeting takes place discreetly, in a small room that has been built in the back of the garage of his house. Abel lives in the quilombo of Sítio Bredos, home to 135 families. The community, located in the municipality of Betânia of Brazil’s northeastern state of Pernambuco, is one of the municipality’s four remaining communities that have been certified as quilombos, the word used to refer to communities formed in the colonial era by enslaved Africans and/or their descendents.

In these villages there are almost no residents who still follow traditional Afro-Brazilian religions. Abel, Seu Joaquim Firmo and Dona Maura Maria da Silva are the sole remaining followers of Umbanda in the communities in which they live. A wave of evangelical missionary activity has taken hold of Betânia’s quilombos ever since the first evangelical church belonging to the Assembleia de Deus group was built in the quilombo of Bredos around 20 years ago. Since then, other evangelical, pentecostal, and neo-pentecostal churches and congregations have established themselves in the area. Today there are now nine temples spread among the four communities, home to roughly 900 families.

The temples belong to the Assembleia de Deus, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, and the World Church of God's Power, the latter of which has over 6,000 temples spread across Brazil and was founded by the apostle and televangelist Valdemiro Santiago, who became infamous during the pandemic for trying to sell beans that he had blessed as a Covid-19 cure. Assembleia de Deus alone, who are the largest pentecostal denomination in the world, have built five churches in Betânia’s quilombos.

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