February 28, 2012
FERRARA - Extraordinary discoveries are sometimes a matter of millimeters -- and years of research.
When the Italian architect Claudio Sgarbi set his ruler along a drawing of an obscure Renaissance manuscript, he was suddenly struck by what he found. He quickly compared it to a copy of the Latin author Vitruvius' De Architectura (On Architecture), which featured a drawing of a man with arms wide apart, inscribed in a circle and a square. His navel was at the center of the circle, and his genitals were at center of the square.
"Among the several graphic interpretations of the human body's proportions that were theorized by Vitruvius, we are aware of just one other with the same geometrical features," Sgarbi says. "It is the one by Leonardo Da Vinci."
For more than 30 years, Sgarbi – a historian of architecture - has studied the manuscript he discovered by chance in the Ariostea Library in Ferrara, in northern Italy. He wrote an essay on the second Vitruvian man that is set to be published, and is working on a book about its story. The American journalist Toby Lester wrote about Sgarbi's discovery in a chapter of his book Da Vinci's Ghost.
Leonardo's Vitruvian man is the most famous anatomical drawing in history, in itself considered by some to be the depiction of Humanism. The man of the manuscript from Ariostea Library looks very different, and is by no means a great master's work of art. Still, its measurements are the same.
Up until now, Leonardo was believed to be the first to have found geometrical solutions to the Latin theoretician's indications. "At the beginning, I thought that it was a later drawing, inspired by Leonardo's," Sgarbi recalls. "Then, I measured the half-erased borders of a larger drawing. It was the same man, still inside a circle and a square. The final drawing had been reduced by half."
Sgarbi explains that the erased drawing has a side of the square that measures 180 millimeters, with the circle's radius of 108 millimeters, which are the same dimensions of the square and the circle of Leonardo's drawing, housed today in Venice's Gallerie dell'Accademia.
The main difference with Leonardo's drawing are signs of several changes. "Above all, the erased part overlaps with the borders of the manuscript. This leads us to think that it came before Leonardo's drawing, which is assumed to date between 1490 and 1500," says Sgarbi. "It is hard to imagine that the author of the manuscript from Ferrara chose a piece of paper of the same size of Leonardo's drawing. The opposite makes more sense. Indeed, Leonardo's piece of paper is larger than usual. It looks like he wanted to make space for a drawing of an unusually large size for a manuscript."
Mystery and pursuit
Not everyone agrees with this theory. "The geometry and the position of the arms are wrong," says Martin Kemp, Professor Emeritus of the History of Art at Oxford University, widely considered the world's leading authority on Leonardo. "The arms are angled upwards. If horizontal, they don't work anymore. Moreover, the head is not on the same line drawn by the extremities of the hands. The manuscript of Ferrara is very important, but I think that it dates after Leonardo's drawing."
Sgarbi instead believes the author of the drawing from Ferrara found a different solution, with the fingers touching the lower intersection of the circle and the square in one position. "Leonardo added a dynamic element. But there are many similarities between the two drawings," Sgarbi says.
The architect's theory sets off a historical and artistic mystery. Did Leonardo copy or get inspired by the Ferrara drawing? Why did this obscure "brother" remain unknown for centuries? Who is the mysterious author?
"I've never thought that Leonardo copied," explains Sgarbi. "Instead, I think that the definitive version of the Vitruvian man was a collaboration between some of the most brilliant minds of the Italian Renaissance."
During the Middle Ages, many artists had already tried to portray the man described by Vitruvius. He appeared in miniature paintings as a Christ on the cross, and later in a 1480 drawing by Francesco di Giorgio Martini. But they all failed in the effort to translate the geometry theorized by the Latin thinker.
Among Italian humanists, the quest for the Vitruvian man became the pursuit of symbolism. The circle represented God and the universe, and the square represented the Earth. The man had to be inscribed within these two figures.
"The Vitruvian man from Ferrara appears to be a step towards Leonardo's great solution," says Sgarbi. "The manuscript was unnoticed for so long due to a mistake in the cataloguing, which defined it as a partial transcription of the ten books of the essay. But in truth, here for the first time Vitruvius' work was fully studied and magnificently illustrated."
The Ferrara document shows some of the same technical solutions that Leonardo was working on, and some indeed see Leonardo's hand in it. Now Sgarbi thinks to have identified the author of the manuscript. "Many clues point to Giacomo Andrea da Ferrara, a scholar, architect and politician, who worked closely with Leonardo," he says.
In his letters, Leonardo wrote about "another Vitruvius'" owned by Giacomo Andrea. Today, there aren't many remaining accounts of Giacomo Andrea's life. We know that, as a supporter of Ludovico Sforza, he was put to death during the French occupation of Milan. He was executed by quartering, his arms and legs spread wide apart -- like a Vitruvian man. This omen might make for the perfect start for a new Da Vinci Code.
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A neo-Nazi has been buried in the former grave of a Jewish musicologist Max Friedlaender – not an oversight, but a deliberate provocation. This is just one more example of antisemitism on the rise in Germany, and society's inability to respond.
Eva Marie Kogel
October 24, 2021
BERLIN — If you want to check the state of your society, there's a simple test: as the U.S. High Commissioner for Germany, John Jay McCloy, said in 1949, the touchstone for a democracy is the well-being of Jews. This litmus test is still relevant today. And it seems Germany would not pass.
Incidents are piling up. Most recently, groups of neo-Nazis from across the country traveled to a church near Berlin for the funeral of a well-known far-right figure. He was buried in the former grave of Jewish musicologist Max Friedlaender, a gravesite chosen deliberately by the right-wing extremists.
The incident at the cemetery
They intentionally chose a Jewish grave as an act of provocation, trying to gain maximum publicity for this act of desecration. And the cemetery authorities at the graveyard in Stahnsdorf fell for it. The church issued an immediate apology, calling it a "terrible mistake" and saying they "must immediately see whether and what we can undo."
There are so many incidents that get little to no media attention.
It's unfathomable that this burial was allowed to take place at all, but now the cemetery authorities need to make a decision quickly about how to put things right. Otherwise, the grave may well become a pilgrimage site for Holocaust deniers and antisemites.
The incident has garnered attention in the international press and it will live long in the memory. Like the case of singer-songwriter Gil Ofarim, who recently claimed he was subjected to antisemitic abuse at a hotel in Leipzig. Details of the crime are still being investigated. But there are so many other incidents that get little to no media attention.
The grave of Jewish musicologist Max Friedlaender
Crimes against Jews are rising
Across all parts of society, antisemitism is on the rise. Until a few years ago, Jewish life was seen as an accepted part of German society. Since the attack on the synagogue in Halle in 2019, the picture has changed: it was a bitter reminder that right-wing terror against Jewish people has a long, unbroken history in Germany.
Stories have abounded about the coronavirus crisis being a Jewish conspiracy; meanwhile, Muslim antisemitism is becoming louder and more forceful. The anti-Israel boycott movement BDS rears its head in every debate on antisemitism, just as left-wing or post-colonial thinking are part of every discussion.
Jewish life needs to be allowed to step out of the shadows.
Since 2015, the number of antisemitic crimes recorded has risen by about a third, to 2,350. But victims only report around 20% of cases. Some choose not to because they've had bad experiences with the police, others because they're afraid of the perpetrators, and still others because they just want to put it behind them. Victims clearly hold out little hope of useful reaction from the state – so crimes go unreported.
And the reality of Jewish life in Germany is a dark one. Sociologists say that Jewish children are living out their "identity under siege." What impact does it have on them when they can only go to nursery under police protection? Or when they hear Holocaust jokes at school?
Germany needs to take its antisemitism seriously
This shows that the country of commemorative services and "stumbling blocks" placed in sidewalks as a memorial to victims of the Nazis has lost its moral compass. To make it point true north again, antisemitism needs to be documented from the perspective of those affected, making it visible to the non-Jewish population. And Jewish life needs to be allowed to step out of the shadows.
That is the first thing. The second is that we need to talk about specifically German forms of antisemitism. For example, the fact that in no other EU country are Jewish people so often confronted about the Israeli government's policies (according to a survey, 41% of German Jews have experienced this, while the EU average is 28%). Projecting the old antisemitism onto the state of Israel offers people a more comfortable target for their arguments.
Our society needs to have more conversations about antisemitism. The test of German democracy, as McCloy called it, starts with taking these concerns seriously and talking about them. We need to have these conversations because it affects all of us. It's about saving our democracy. Before it's too late.
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Die Welt ("The World") is a German daily founded in Hamburg in 1946, and currently owned by the Axel Springer AG company, Europe's largest publishing house. Now based in Berlin, Die Welt is sold in more than 130 countries. A Sunday edition called Welt am Sonntag has been published since 1948.
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