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Germany

What's Driving Gulf Cash To European Holdings

Taking a sizable stake in Deutsche Bank, Qatari investors are once again showing a strategy that is single-minded by definition.

After German cars, Qatari sheikhs are starting to invest in German banks.
After German cars, Qatari sheikhs are starting to invest in German banks.
Simone Boehringer and Thomas Fromm

FRANKFURT — Once upon a time, buying an expensive German car was enough to make a rich sheikh happy. Lately it seems a car doesn't quite cut it, though a sizeable stake in an entire German car company may do nicely, thank you.

Four years ago, for example, at a Volkswagen general assembly, a man was sitting up on the stage who didn’t look like the others there from the VW family dynasty. The man's name was Hussain Ali Al-Abdulla, and he was a board member of the Qatar Investment Authority (QIA) that owns 17% of VW after acquiring most of Porsche’s share options.

Seventeen percent of the common stock of one of the world’s largest automakers is a great deal. But since the Porsche and Piëch families (via Porsche Holding) own over half of VW stocks and the state of Lower Saxony holds a further 20%, this 17% gives the QIA a strategic right to make its voice heard quite clearly — if not direct power.

Still, it seems that direct power is not necessarily what Gulf investors are after. They want one thing above all: to see their investments multiply. That appears to be the strategy driving the 1.75 billion euro investment in Deutsche Bank this week that shook financial markets.

At Volkswagen competitor Daimler, which unlike VW is not a company with large family shareholdings, the Kuwait Investment Authority holds some 7% of shares. Again that doesn’t sound like a lot, except that it means that they are Daimler’s single biggest shareholder.

The amount of money involved is indeed formidable. QIA boasts an estimated $200 billion, which means they’re not too choosy with their investments as long as they bring in high returns. The firms on the Qatari shopping list include the Merck Fink, Credit Suisse and Barclays banks, the Paris Saint-Germain soccer club, Siemens, the beleaguered manufacturer of photovoltaic products Solarworld, Royal Dutch Shell — but also Tiffany's, Louis Vuitton, the London stock exchange, Lagardère and German construction company Hochtief.

What such portfolios show is that Gulf investors tend not to limit themselves to specific kinds of companies, and certainly not to individual countries.

The investors from the Emirates are welcome guests in business circles: they have a reputation for being reserved and discrete — unlike hedge fund folks, for example. Sometimes they arrive as a figurative white knight to rescue companies, as was the case with Abu Dhabi-based Etihad Airways, which now owns 29.2% of German’s second largest airline company, Air Berlin. As a large shareholder, it helped out to the tune of 300 million euros and is betting on long-term recovery of the airline.

Sometimes the Arab investors court Western companies in their quest to acquire shares; these state investment funds have billions to manage, and the market for high-yield investments is limited.

And so this is the context in which the recent Qatari investment in Deutsche Bank arrive. The Arabs are keen on investing in Germany in general and investing in German firms in particular. In any case, international investors tend to go for German stocks when the financial markets are in crisis. And German shares are comparatively popular tangible assets when the objective is profiting from growth prospects.

According to a recent study by professional services firm Ernst & Young, over the past 10 years the number of foreign investors in the 30 large companies listed on the Frankfurt-based Dax stock index had grown from 44% to 54% by the end of 2013. Most of the investors were European, followed by North American funds. Asian and Arab investors were still a minority, but rising sharply.

Unlike Chinese

When some of the European Union's peripheral countries were strongly affected by the crisis two years ago, there were even more foreign asset managers focused on Germany. At the height of the crisis they accounted for 58% of foreign Dax investors. The largest shareholder in Dax-quoted companies is still BlackRock. Through various funds, the American asset manager holds 3% or more of all Dax company shares, and BlackRock is often listed as the largest shareholder in individual companies.

Unlike Qatar, at Volkswagen BlackRock holds over 5% of preferential stock and is thus the largest shareholder. It only holds 0.15% of the strategically important common shares which are mostly in the hands of the Porsche families and not on the Dax.

In October 2012 Daimler boss Dieter Zetsche learned just how fast-moving business with foreign investors can sometimes be. When it began in March 2009, the alliance with the Abu Dhabi-based Aabar Investments was supposed to last for decades — the sheikhs had bought a 9% share for two billion euros.

But after only three and a half years, they sold. Eastern investors are anything but romantic when it comes to their Western investments. And unlike Chinese investors, they’re not overly interested in technology. They mainly just want to take their petro-billions, and make billions more.

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Society

In Northern Kenya, Where Climate Change Is Measured In Starving Children

The worst drought in 40 years, which has deepened from the effects of climate change, is hitting the young the hardest around the Horn of Africa. A close-up look at the victims, and attempts to save lives and limit lasting effects on an already fragile region in Kenya.

Photo of five mothers holding their malnourished children

At feeding time, nurses and aides encourage mothers to socialize their children and stimulate them to eat.

Georgina Gustin

KAKUMA — The words "Stabilization Ward" are painted in uneven black letters above the entrance, but everyone in this massive refugee camp in Kakuma, Kenya, calls it ya maziwa: The place of milk.

Rescue workers and doctors, mothers and fathers, have carried hundreds of starving children through the doors of this one-room hospital wing, which is sometimes so crowded that babies and toddlers have to share beds. A pediatric unit is only a few steps away, but malnourished children don’t go there. They need special care, and even that doesn’t always save them.

In an office of the International Rescue Committee nearby, Vincent Opinya sits behind a desk with figures on dry-erase boards and a map of the camp on the walls around him. “We’ve lost 45 children this year due to malnutrition,” he says, juggling emergencies, phone calls, and texts. “We’re seeing a significant increase in malnutrition cases as a result of the drought — the worst we’ve faced in 40 years.”

From January to June, the ward experienced an 800 percent rise in admissions of children under 5 who needed treatment for malnourishment — a surge that aid groups blame mostly on a climate change-fueled drought that has turned the region into a parched barren.

Opinya, the nutrition manager for the IRC here, has had to rattle off these statistics many times, but the reality of the numbers is starting to crack his professional armor. “It’s a very sad situation,” he says, wearily. And he believes it will only get worse. A third year of drought is likely on the way.

More children may die. But millions will survive malnutrition and hunger only to live through a compromised future, researchers say. The longer-term health effects of this drought — weakened immune systems, developmental problems — will persist for a generation or more, with consequences that will cascade into communities and societies for decades.

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