BUENOS AIRES — If there is a force more potent than Chinese work habits, it must be multinational competition. In Argentina, hundreds of Chinese grocery stores — the ones that, to the chagrin of local shops, are open 24 hours — have closed as large global supermarket chains have opened small convenience stores.
Over the last two years, in fact, 418 Chinese groceries have closed. Some 300 of those turned to the increasingly popular "pay-per-weight" lunchtime catering in response to multinational brands muscling into the daily shopping market, especially in the Greater Buenos Aires area. That represents the closure or conversion of 7% of all Chinese grocery shops in Argentina.
Twenty five large chains, including Carrefour, Dia and Walmart, are gaining ground in this market, according to CCR, a consultancy firm. These big companies are now estimated to make up 50% of Argentina's food shops with an area of less than 500 square meters, all providing the same quality products as their larger outlets — and at the same price.
Chain analysts and directors chalk this up as a response to changes in consumer habits, and not strictly related to the recession. Carrefour currently has 559 outlets, of which 349 are in this "local format," says Carlos Velasco, its communications chief in Argentina. He says the chain opened 34 Carrefour Express stores and that the company is "aiming to open 15 to 20 more." The consultants at Kantar Worldpanel estimate that big brands control 55% of retail sales in Argentina, in all their outlets, the remainder being shared between groceries, other department stores, wholesalers, fairs and markets.
In a Buenos Aires supermarket — Photo: EMartin Zabala/Xinhua/ZUMA
"The preponderance of the big supermarket is declining, and the presence of local shops increasing," says Federico Filipponi, a consumer trends analyst at Kantar. And the type of shopping being done at the local supermarket — the minimarket or minisúper — is perhaps more significant than previously thought, he says, with people buying up to 15 product types on average.
Significantly, 92% of the chain stores that opened in 2014 were in the small, local format, compared to 59% in 2011, 78% in 2012 and 85% in 2013. It's a solid trend because, as Kantar's Filipponi says, "people want to save time" by avoiding the huge big box stores.
And yet it doesn't signal the end to the major supermarkets. The average shopping bill at one of these is four times bigger than at a local shop. And as Carrefour's Velasco reminds us, only 9% of the brand's turnover in Argentina comes from "mini markets."
Chinese shops shuttering
One way or another, Chinese shops are in retreat. Miguel Calvete, president of the association of Chinese shopkeepers CASREC, blames the recession but also the forward push of chains. "On the one hand, people are consuming less and are more careful with spending," he says. "On the other, the chains are pursuing a very aggressive expansion plan, mainly Carrefour and Dia," he says, citing inflation and price controls imposed by the government of President Cristina Kirchner.
Corner shop closures and conversions are frequent. "Many are forced to close or they migrate inland, to cities with fewer than 40,000 residents," Calvete says. "Those with businesses in wealthier ares, in the capital or large inland cities, turn to selling food by weight."
In San Diego, California, a researcher tracked how in the city's low-income neighborhoods that have traditionally lacked dining options, when interesting eateries arrive the gentrification of white, affluent and college-educated people has begun.
SAN DIEGO — Everybody, it seems, welcomes the arrival of new restaurants, cafés, food trucks and farmers markets.
What could be the downside of fresh veggies, homemade empanadas and a pop-up restaurant specializing in banh mis?
But when they appear in unexpected places – think inner-city areas populated by immigrants – they're often the first salvo in a broader effort to rebrand and remake the community. As a result, these neighborhoods can quickly become unaffordable and unrecognizable to longtime residents.
An appetite for gentrification
I live in San Diego, where I teach courses on urban and food geographies and conduct research on the relationship between food and ethnicity in urban contexts.
In recent years, I started to notice a pattern playing out in the city's low-income neighborhoods that have traditionally lacked food options. More ethnic restaurants, street vendors, community gardens and farmers markets were cropping up. These, in turn, spurred growing numbers of white, affluent and college-educated people to venture into areas they had long avoided.
This observation inspired me to write a book, titled The $16 Taco, about how food – including what's seen as "ethnic," "authentic" or "alternative" – often serves as a spearhead for gentrification.
Take City Heights, a large multi-ethnic San Diego neighborhood where successive waves of refugees from places as far away as Vietnam and Somalia have resettled. In 2016, a dusty vacant lot on the busiest boulevard was converted into an outdoor international marketplace called Fair@44. There, food vendors gather in semi-permanent stalls to sell pupusas, lechon (roasted pig), single-sourced cold-brewed coffee, cupcakes and tamarind raspado (crushed ice) to neighborhood residents, along with tourists and visitors from other parts of the city.
Informal street vendors are casualties.
A public-private partnership called the City Heights Community Development Corporation, together with several nonprofits, launched the initiative to increase "access to healthy and culturally appropriate food" and serve as "a business incubator for local micro-entrepreneurs," including immigrants and refugees who live in the neighborhood.
On paper, this all sounds great.
But just a few blocks outside the gates, informal street vendors – who have long sold goods such as fruit, tamales and ice cream to residents who can't easily access supermarkets – now face heightened harassment. They've become causalities in a citywide crackdown on sidewalk vending spurred by complaints from business owners and residents in more affluent areas.
This isn't just happening in San Diego. The same tensions have been playing out in rapidly gentrifying areas like Los Angeles' Boyle Heights neighborhood, Chicago's Pilsen neighborhood, New York's Queens borough and East Austin, Texas.
In all of these places, because "ethnic," "authentic" and "exotic" foods are seen as cultural assets, they've become magnets for development.
A call for food justice
Cities and neighborhoods have long sought to attract educated and affluent residents – people whom sociologist Richard Florida dubbed "the creative class." The thinking goes that these newcomers will spend their dollars and presumably contribute to economic growth and job creation.
Food, it seems, has become the perfect lure.
It's uncontroversial and has broad appeal. It taps into the American Dream and appeals to the multicultural values of many educated, wealthy foodies. Small food businesses, with their relatively low cost of entry, have been a cornerstone of ethnic entrepreneurship in American cities. And initiatives like farmers markets and street fairs don't require much in the way of public investment; instead, they rely on entrepreneurs and community-based organizations to do the heavy lifting.
In City Heights, the Community Development Corporation hosted its first annual City Heights Street Food Festival in 2019 to "get people together around table and food stalls to celebrate another year of community building." Other recent events have included African Restaurant Week, Dia de Los Muertos, New Year Lunar Festival, Soul Food Fest and Brazilian Carnival, all of which rely on food and drink to attract visitors and support local businesses.
Meanwhile, initiatives such as the New Roots Community Farm and the City Heights Farmers' Market have been launched by nonprofits with philanthropic support in the name of "food justice," with the goal of reducing racial disparities in access to healthy food and empowering residents – projects that are particularly appealing to highly educated people who value diversity and democracy.
Upending an existing foodscape
In media coverage of changing foodscapes in low-income neighborhoods like City Heights, you'll rarely find any complaints.
San Diego Magazine's neighborhood guide for City Heights, for example, emphasizes its "claim to authentic international eats, along with live music venues, craft beer, coffee, and outdoor fun." It recommends several ethnic restaurants and warns readers not to be fooled by appearances.
Longtime residents find themselves forced to compete against the "urban food machine"
But that doesn't mean objections don't exist.
Many longtime residents and small-business owners – mostly people of color and immigrants – have, for decades, lived, worked and struggled to feed their families in these neighborhoods. To do so, they've run convenience stores, opened ethnic restaurants, sold food in parks and alleys and created spaces to grow their own food.
All represent strategies to meet community needs in a place mostly ignored by mainstream retailers.
So what happens when new competitors come to town?
Starting at a disadvantage
As I document in my book, these ethnic food businesses, because of a lack of financial and technical support, often struggle to compete with new enterprises that feature fresh façades, celebrity chefs, flashy marketing, bogus claims of authenticity and disproportionate media attention. Furthermore, following the arrival of more-affluent residents, existing ones find it increasingly difficult to stay.
My analysis of real estate ads for properties listed in City Heights and other gentrifying San Diego neighborhoods found that access to restaurants, cafés, farmers markets and outdoor dining is a common selling point. The listings I studied from 2019 often enticed potential buyers with lines like "shop at the local farmers' market," "join food truck festivals" and "participate in community food drives!"
San Diego Magazine's home buyer guide for the same year identified City Heights as an "up-and-coming neighborhood," attributing its appeal to its diverse population and eclectic "culinary landscape," including several restaurants and Fair@44.
When I see that City Heights' home prices rose 58% over the past three years, I'm not surprised.
Going up against the urban food machine
Longtime residents find themselves forced to compete against what I call the "urban food machine," a play on sociologist Harvey Molotch's "urban growth machine" – a term he coined more than 50 years ago to explain how cities were being shaped by a loose coalition of powerful elites who sought to profit off urban growth.
I argue that investors and developers use food as a tool for achieving the same ends.
When their work is done, what's left is a rather insipid and tasteless neighborhood, where foodscapes become more of a marketable mishmash of cultures than an ethnic enclave that's evolved organically to meet the needs of residents. The distinctions of time and place start to blur: An "ethnic food district" in San Diego looks no different than one in Chicago or Austin.
Meanwhile, the routines and rhythms of everyday life have changed so much that longtime residents no longer feel like they belong. Their stories and culture reduced to a selling point, they're forced to either recede to the shadows or leave altogether.
It's hard to see how that's a form of inclusion or empowerment.
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