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Employees Of The World: Your Boss Will Outlive You!

Looking a bit ashy...
Looking a bit ashy...

PARIS — Employees everywhere, here's one more good reason to grumble: Your boss will probably outlive you.

A new study from France's national statistics bureau (INSEE) quantifies what many might have suspected, also in light of noted correlations between wealth and life expectancy. But the latest French study, which echos similar findings from other countries in recent years, may put a face on the discrepancy for workers. Citing figures from the report, Le Monde noted that while life expectancy across France is on the rise, inequalities persist, notably with managers typically living six years longer than workers.

There is also a correlation between education level and life expectancy, with advanced-degree holders outliving those with fewer academic credentials.

Analogous findings have periodically been noted elsewhere. In Italy, La Repubblicareported back in 2014 about the negative correlation between high education levels, poverty and poor health. A report from the country's National Institute for Health, Poverty and Migration (NIHMP) suggested that male executives could expect to outlive less qualified workers of the same age and sex by five years.

And in the UK, the British Office for National Statistics found in 2010 that manual laborers were twice as likely as their supervisors to die early.

Still, even if the head honchos of the world have an edge over the masses, there is some consolation for women. On average, they consistently outlive men, regardless of their position on the company totem pole. Moreover, according to the new French study, there is a smaller gap — three years — between life expectancy of women managers and women workers.

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The Unsustainable Future Of Fish Farming — On Vivid Display In Turkish Waters

Currently, 60% of Turkey's fish currently comes from cultivation, also known as fish farming, compared to just 10% two decades ago. The short-sightedness of this shift risks eliminating fishing output from both the farms and the open seas along Turkey's 5,200 miles of coastline.

Photograph of two fishermen throwing a net into the Tigris river in Turkey.

Traditional fishermen on the Tigris river, Turkey.

Dûrzan Cîrano/Wikimeidia
İrfan Donat

ISTANBUL — Turkey's annual fish production includes 515,000 tons from cultivation and 335,000 tons came from fishing in open waters. In other words, 60% of Turkey's fish currently comes from cultivation, also known as fish farming.

It's a radical shift from just 20 years ago when some 600,000 tons, or 90% of the total output, came from fishing. Now, researchers are warning the current system dominated by fish farming is ultimately unsustainable in the country with 8,333 kilometers (5,177 miles) long.

Professor Mustafa Sarı from the Maritime Studies Faculty of Bandırma 17 Eylül University believes urgent action is needed: “Why were we getting 600,000 tons of fish from the seas in the 2000’s and only 300,000 now? Where did the other 300,000 tons of fish go?”

Professor Sarı is challenging the argument from certain sectors of the industry that cultivation is the more sustainable approach. “Now we are feeding the fish that we cultivate at the farms with the fish that we catch from nature," he explained. "The fish types that we cultivate at the farms are sea bass, sea bram, trout and salmon, which are fed with artificial feed produced at fish-feed factories. All of these fish-feeds must have a significant amount of fish flour and fish oil in them.”

That fish flour and fish oil inevitably must come from the sea. "We have to get them from natural sources. We need to catch 5.7 kilogram of fish from the seas in order to cultivate a sea bream of 1 kg," Sarı said. "Therefore, we are feeding the fish to the fish. We cannot cultivate fish at the farms if the fish in nature becomes extinct. The natural fish need to be protected. The consequences would be severe if the current policy is continued.”

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